Items filtered by date: December 2021

Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:13

Roles in the Nursing Profession








Roles in the Nursing Profession


The nursing profession is a learning experience where every student is expected to learn new things during his or her course of study. Ideally, every student must know that the profession has challenges, which need to be addressed in real time in order to be effective and efficient in the profession. Notably, nurses’ roles are to make the lives of their patients better because this would lead to increased satisfaction among the clients/patients. In essence, many nurses face many stressful pressures and demands, which alleviate their chances of risking their safety and health among other problems. Ultimately working with stressed nurses affects the organization’s performance because in most cases a firm’s overall performance depends on individual performance of each employee in the organization.

Models of Transition: Bridges; Adams and Spencer

Bridges believes that adults do not follow their chronological ages in their developments but they follow steps or transitions during their learning. According to Bridge, “sequence of transition phases included the beginning of something new, the end of something familiar, and some nebulous time in between the old and the new referred to as “the neutral zone” (DeNisco & Barker, 2013, p. 608). In essence, this is very important in the nursing profession because of the changes in the profession resulting from technological advances and innovations. Nurse ought to be ready to learn new trends in their professions because they improve the quality of care they offer their patients. Essentially, nurses should be opposed to change because it is inevitable in any profession. At the same time, new technologies are constantly replaced by innovations thus calling for nurse to accept and learn any new tool in their professions. On the contrary, healthcare organizations must be aware of the neutral zones because many nurses fail to transit from it. 

On the other hand, Adams and Spencer developed a seven-step model for helping people with problems of change to adapt easily. The transition has its intensity and it takes time before the nurses accept that the transition is inevitable. Moreover, certain changes take the affected persons by surprise thus destabilizing their personal performances. Furthermore, some people d might not be aware of the effects that the change would have in their lives; as a result, such persons would be indifferent to the change. The third stage is that some people are in shock because of the stage their life is in and the belief that some stages are more turbulent than others are. In number four, people tend to take into consideration the different changes happening in their lives at the same time thus deciding to reject any new changes. In essence, persons do not understand and admit uncertainty and vulnerability as the change occurs vs. the need to be okay. Step number six is the level of self-awareness while the last step is accepting the time when the change would be complete. The Adams and Spencer transition model is applicable in my life.

Role Stress/Strain in Nursing

In the United States, a fourth of the workforce in any sector views their jobs as the leading causer of stress in their lives. For many generations, the nursing profession is considered one of the leading causes of stress among workers. Essentially, “Stress in nursing is attributed largely to the physical labor, suffering and emotional demands of patients and families, work hours, shift work, interpersonal relationships (e.g., inter- and intra-professional conflict), and other pressures that are central to the work nurses do” (DeNisco & Barker, 2013, p. 608). In addition, other factors such as use of highly sophisticated medical technologies, increased changes in organizational management, increasing workload and budget cuts are responsible for increase in stress among nurses since the 1980s (DeNisco & Barker, 2013). Moreover, researchers reveal that nursing responsibilities have increased stress in addition to multiple pressures thus leading to significant increase in stress levels among nurses. Essentially, among all healthcare professions, nursing remains as the leading stressful work in the past decade. Consequently, nurses identify overwork and stress as their leading health and safety concerns.

Furthermore, nurses are exposed to a wide range of psychosocial stressors, which include

  • Physical violence and bullying
  • Lack of efficient communication methods in the work environment
  • Inadequate reward systems
  • Insufficient resources
  • Interpersonal conflicts
  • Shift-work
  • Long working hours
  • Inability to control the management style (DeNisco & Barker, 2013)

In essence, despite increasing concerns among the above-mentioned stressors, physical violence and workplace bullying is of a growing concern among many nurses in the United States. For example, in 20, according to the American Nurses Association, seventeen percent of interviewed nurses agreed to have been physically abused at their workplaces while 56.9% reported verbal abuses and threats. Notably, patients, their family and friends and strangers commonly commit physical violence towards nurses. On the other hand, verbal abuse in the form of bullying, verbal aggression, disruptive behavior and incivility in meted by fellow nurses, other coworkers, physicians and nurse managers.

According to DeNisco & Barker (2013), psychosocial stressors have several negative outcomes among nurse, which could be short-and-long-term. Ideally, job related stress leads to sleep problems and depression among the victims. Moreover, stress leads to increased absenteeism, physical complaints, rising psychological stress and low levels of job satisfaction. At the same time, elevated levels of work-related stress lead to somatic disturbances, irritability, low self-esteem and feelings of inadequacy in the affected nurses. When considered as a group nurses have higher mortality rates, increased chances of general illnesses, stress related diseases, psychiatric admissions, and outpatient consultations.

As DeNisco & Barker (2013) notes, importantly, increased job stress leads to higher chances of compassion fatigue and moral stress, which is associated with nurses according to the nature of work. Some nurses, especially those taking care of the terminally ill have to make moral decisions according to what is best for the patient. However, nurses meet several constraints in their stations, which make them believe that they are not offering the best services to their patient; thus leading to increased stress. Healthcare politics and modern business practices have changed the nursing profession because traditionally it was practiced as a moral calling to help patients regain their livelihoods. As a result, nurses face increased challenges as healthcare facilities work towards achieving higher returns at the expense of the patients. Consequently, business practices have led to a disconnection between nursing philosophy and corporate marketing thus resulting compassion fatigue as many nurses are in an ethical dilemma. Compassion fatigue happens when a nurse becomes psychologically withdrawn from nursing thus forgetting the caring role of a nurse. In such situations, nurses feel helpless for they understand that roles but do not have the powers to control their management styles. I have met physically violent patients who have led to increased levels of stress in my life.

Advanced Nursing Education and Practice

The two models are applicable to advanced nurses because of the many changes that witnessed in the nursing profession. However, different people take transitions differently because some are not readily ready to accept new things. In such situations, such nurses take longer time to understand new concepts in the nursing profession as compared to those described by Bridges who understand life to be a series of transitions. The latter are ever ready to take up new things thus reducing the time taken to understand new things in their lives. At the same time, all nurses have stress regardless of their level of learning. Advanced nurses face the above-mentioned stressors, which affect their quality of job dispensation. However, advanced nurses are theoretically more prepared to face the challenges during their work. The relationship between transition theories and role stress in nursing shows that the models would help in reducing stress among nurses.


The study is ideal for any person who aspires to fight the many challenges associated with nursing profession. Understanding transitions would lead to reduced causes of stress in the nursing profession thus helping students in becoming better nurses. Consequently, such a person is prepared for the challenges that lie ahead; therefore increasing the chances of giving the best services to the clients. Although the study does not address measures taken up by organizations to minimize stress among nurses, it is a revelation to any aspiring nurse.




DeNisco, S., & Barker, A. M. (2013). Advanced practice nursing: Evolving roles for the transformation of the profession. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.


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Transition to a Professional Role Advanced Nursing





Nurses are meant to safeguard the interests of the patients while offering quality healthcare. There are times in which nurses are faced by ethical dilemmas that need to be solved to ensure no harm to the patients. Nurses are qualified in their career and are aware of the healthcare services they should provide to their patients. Nevertheless, there are times in which a nurse cannot do what is right because of organizational constraints or one’s position in the organization. This is because a nurse reports to senior medical practitioners who in most cases make the major decisions regarding the patients. This is usually explained on the issue of moral distress.

Roles in the Nursing Profession

Moral distress is defined as the situation in which even though a person knows the right action to take, there are institutional constraints that make it impossible to undertake the right action. For the case of a nurse, moral distress is experienced when the nurses are aware of the ethical action to take but are powerless to take it. Nurses are the most vulnerable in patient care because even though they are equipped with the right knowledge, they have very little or no influence on decision-making. This makes nurses live with a burden of the results from wrong decisions taken by their superiors (Blais, 2006).

The provisions that apply to solve this from the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses are 1, 2, and 3. In provision 1, nurses should respect human dignity which should be ensured through administering analgesic to the patient to relieve pain and allow the second patient to seek medical services from the hospital of choice and from qualified physicians. The nurse should also respect nature of health problems and treat them as they are supposed to. Right to self-determination also allows the second patient to request and be granted transfer to the hospital she prefers. Relationship with colleagues requires that the physicians and the supervisors respect the expertise of their counterparts (the nurses) and thus follow their reasonable advice.  In provision 2, it is required that nurses are committed to the patient. This way, the physicians should involve the patients in planning and implementation of the treatment process, which involves analgesic administration and request for transfer. Further, physicians are required to solve professional conflicts in a manner that will ensure patient safety. This also requires collaboration by all nurses working towards the goal of ensuring patient safety (Blais, 2006). In provision 3, the nurse should protect patients from harm by incompetent physicians as is the case of the second patient. 

Advanced Nursing Education and Practice

            Breach of the ethical principles that guide the nursing profession can result to legal issues. It is possible for the patients to file court suits against the hospital for unsatisfactorily results and incorrect surgery process. The patients have a right to argue that the physicians and nurses did not act to the best of their interests on did not relieve them of pain, which they were in a position to. It is notable that the physicians are reluctant and act knowingly to harm the patients even after reasonable and sound advice from the nurses. They are not ethical in their practice but do not follow the ethical advice provided by the nurses. The nurses in this case will be considered accomplices since they help in unethical practices even though they know what is right.    

In the new era of healthcare, nurses are required to focus on quality care for their patients. Nurses are required to develop and maintain a trustworthy and authentic relationship with the patients. In addition, nurses are required to be present and support the feelings of the person being cared for (Blais, 2006). The caring model requires that nurses respect the uniqueness and dignity of the patients. This implies that the present healthcare practices require that nurses treat their patients with respect. They should not be forced into a certain form of treatment and healthcare without their consent. The feelings and interests of the patients should be considered. Effective caring of patients comes up with emotional involvement of the nurses (Blais, 2006). The best type of caring by nurses can be guided by the caring theory by Jean Watson, which helps in dealing with role stress.

The caring theory by Jean Watson guides the way nurses should offer quality care to their patients. Through this theory, nurses are encouraged to offer care while preserving the wholeness and dignity of humanity. This way, the collective caring of nurses involves attending to and sustaining wholeness and humanity. The societal mission of nurses thus is to care for their patients during the most difficult times in their life. The three vital aspects of the caring theory are the carative factors, the caring moment, and the transpersonal caring relationship. According to Blais(2006), the carative factors “honor the human dimensions of nursing’s work and the inner life world and subjective experiences of the people we serve” (p. 350). The carative factors require that the nurse maintains a positive relationship with the patients. The ten carative factors are formation of a humanistic-altruistic system of values, sustenance of faith, being sensitive to both self and others, development of a trusting and caring relationship, promotion and acceptance of expression of all types of emotions and feelings, involvement in creative problem solving caring processes, promotion of transpersonal teaching and learning, supporting corrective mental, societal, spiritual, and physical environments, providing human needs while respecting human wholeness and dignity, and  lastly accepting spiritual healing that is not proven scientifically. The transpersonal caring relationship as the second element expects the nurse to be conscious and morally committed to having an intentional relationship with the patient. The caring moment or occasion requires that the nurse and the patient create the time and space in which they come together for caring to take place (Blais, 2006). In ensuring effective care, when nurses focus on caring and creation of positive relationships between caring practices and power, effective social arrangements are realized.

It is true that patient care comes first for nurses, with all devised programs meant to improve the welfare of the patient. This has been ensured though Obama Care/ ACA and use of technology. ACA has improved the welfare of the patient by ensuring that one receives quality healthcare through insurance programs. For children, for instance, it is now possible to be covered by health insurances of their parents up to the age of 26. In addition, it is not possible to deny children health coverage as a result of preexisting conditions. Further, healthcare has been improved by use of electronic health records (EHR). With this use of technology, a patient taken to a hospital for immediate treatment is possible to receive the required treatment because the practitioner dealing with the patient is able to view the patient’s records online without asking for fax message (Blais, 2006). It is therefore advisable that all healthcare providers benefit from the incentives provided for those who participate in EHRs since the benefits outweigh the costs.

Quality care is vital even when moving patients through one’s department. Working in a busy emergency department, it is expected that there is fast throughput in the department so that all patients are served first. More change is required in order to move patients without comprising the quality of the healthcare services provided. The best way to do this is through cooperation between departments. There are times in which a patient should be moved from the emergency department for admission. However, without the required cooperation between departments, the challenges faced include unavailability of rooms, nurses are busy with other patients, and lack of nurses to make reports in the receiving unit. This can be solved through interdepartmental meetings and team building experiences in which all staff in all departments are trained to work in unison towards realization of the same goal (Blais, 2006). 




            Nursing is a profession guided by code of ethics in order to ensure that the major focus is the safety of the patients. They should look for fast ways of solving their conflicts to safeguard the interests of their patients. Nonetheless, their ethical practices are constrained by moral distress.  These ethical principles are good ways of overcoming all faced including role stress. 






Blais, K. (2006). Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:13

Education Theory




Education Theory



My learning theory is experimental education theory that involves active demonstrations and experiments (Díaz-Maggioli, 2012). During the past week, my theory of character education that was implemented in practice was the kinesthetic learning character. As a kinesthetic, I preferred group work and a lot of demonstration. Even though oral explanation is important, I concentrated on demonstration, which was helpful to help my students understand the solution better on any task they undertook. This learning character also helped my students remember the solutions given to certain problems. As the instructor, I also advocated for fieldwork. This type of learning style was effective when I found that some students were unable to concentrate for long hours when learning some difficult and complex topics and wished to have reflection periods between tasks. In order to increase my students’ concentration, I did not rely on explanations only but also on demonstrations and fieldwork. As the instructor, I also focused on giving classroom tasks such as handouts to encourage group work. This way, I decreased the amount spend in explanations, which was sometimes boring to my students. With this learning character, I portrayed intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence and this called for time for reflection. This encouraged students to look back to what they have learned and be able to apply it in real life scenarios. Additionally, I also gave learners time to practice new skills instead of reading them.

When I was handling class assignments and term papers, I preferred visual learning. This is because even though the tasks were demanding, I helped my students understand orders quickly if told in clear terms rather than shown. In order to make the students feel confident when handling the assignments, I used visual learning aids such as slides. I also encouraged the students to finish the tasks as fast as possible. I also encouraged group work so that students could share ideas and help each other in handling challenges faced. 


Díaz-Maggioli, G. (2012). Teaching language teachers: Scaffolding professional learning. Lanham, Md: Rowman&Littlefied Education.


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A Book Review on “Only Child” by Torey Hayden

            The book “Only Child,” was first published in the United States in 1980. The book is authored by Torey Hayden. She talks about the challenges of teaching children with special needs. Although her students in the class have special needs, Hayden is given a carpeted, narrow and long classroom with one window at the end. Consequently, this is not an ideal teaching place for such students. The books opens when Hayden is a reading a newspaper article about a six year old girl who attempted to burn a three year old boy. Since the girl cannot access space at the hospital, she ends up at Hayden’s classroom where she stays for five months. Ideally, the girl is not a criminal but her mental status pushes her to do things that she regrets later. Being a psychologist, Hayden understands the life challenges that the girl had to go through before she chose to burn the young boy (Hayden, 2006).

            Through the life of Sheila, the author shows that virtues are instilled in people during their early stages of life. Sheila has lived in poverty all her life in addition to putting up with a verbally abusive and neglectful father. Consequently, she does not confide her problems to other people but she is aggressive enough to gorge out the eyes of all goldfish in the school’s aquarium. The fact that she cannot trust anyone especially after her mother deserted her makes her withdrawn from other pupils’ activities. However, Torey is able to show Sheila love by shampooing her hair, which makes her feel, appreciated (Brittany, 1989). The only person whom Sheila knows as loving is Hayden and thus she is afraid that she could abandon her one day. She misbehaves when Hayden leaves for while to attend a meeting in California. In essence, Sheila life has been shattered because she has never known love all her life.




Brittany, F. (1989). “Teen Ink.” One Child by Torey Hayden. Retrieved 20 Jan. 2015 from

Hayden, T. L. (2006). One Child. New York. HarperCollins Publishers Limited.

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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:12

Organisations and Behaviour


Organisations and Behaviour




Session: February 2014


Task 1 (LO 1)

Tradition and  formation at  Google

            In efforts to ensure that Google is differentiated from its competitors across the globe, the firm ensures that that there are strong team that are empowerd. The teams are cross functional culture ensures that the empoyees are motivated and thus guarantying that there is continuous creativity and innovation, a policy achieved through parallel hierarchy. Through that, the management at Google makes certain that all employee actively participate in the in decision making process through intercultural effective communication. Intercultural communication does not only guarantee employee participation, but also enhances employee participation in all the organization processes.          Google realizesthatits employees are the most value assets, thus aligns the organization’s goal, ‘win-win’, to those of the employees’s Employees. Among the principle features employed by Google to ensure that the employees remain motivated include the free lunches, gaming facility, and short nap areas. Through that, the customized packages and solutions satisfy the employees needs.

Implication of  Google’s  Culture  on  Employees

In the organization, all employees have a chance to express their ideas through the informal famous organization culture at Google. Thus, there are minimum rules that can limit personal space which encourages creativity and motivation. Among the key featuatures that guarantee success at Google entails generation of new ideas and risk taking; therefore, that has made Google is the most popular search engine because the management ensures that there is constant improvement (Shahbazi, Behzad et al, 2009).

Through the suitable working environment along with hierarchy of information, the employees improve their performance, and that is reflected in the overall improvement of the performance of Google. In efforts to increase client satisfaction, all employees are driven by the urge to excel in their functions through development of new ideas and brainstorming. This has played a critical role in making certain that Google’s client always have consistent value.  

Effective working and repeated rediscovering remains a principle and definitive guide at Google. There are many approaches employed Google to ensure that the employee fel value and welcomed to work at Google; among them include free supply among others. The horizontal organization culture makes the employees to remain motivated because they enjoy freedom, which makes the Google to achieve its organization goals because the organization has confidence on the employees.


Advantages  of  Google’s  Cultural  Style

There are many advantages of the horizontal organization culture at Google, these are not limited to:

  1. The output manifold is creased through proficient and quick assessment
  2. There is improment in collaboration and superior management in the allignment of the organization goals and purposes.
  3. There is limited conflicts of interest among employees, thus increasing effiency in operations.
  4. Creation a favourable working environment and thus ensuring employees meet their targets.
  5. ensuring employees are empowered and those positively contribute to growth of Google.

Disadvantages  of  Google’s  Cultural  Style

Besides the strengths linked to the organizational culture at Google, below are its disadvantages:

  1. the fact that there is no clearly defined order can limit the chances of improvement at Google.
  2. There are high risks that may result to shortcomings in the short run and long run, hence limiting growth.
  3. Continuos and fast changes in efforts to improve the firm may make it hard for some employees to withstand the changes.
  4. Some employees may be very influential and that may adversely influence the employment principles.

Organizational  Management  Theories

            Firms owe  much to Charle Handy due to his contribution to organization management through the concept of Shamrock Organization along with term worker portifolio that he supported   against the entities that are in defiance. All workers are considered identical and work-life balance philosophy is key organization value at Google. In efforts to guarantee this,when need be, some workers are allowed to work from home (Shafritz, J. M., & ott s. J, 2001).

            Different organizations have varying cultures in respect to shared beliefs, artefacts, and espoused facts. The artefacts may include the employee dressing codes and internal ambience, the espoused values include coordination and interaction among employees, while shared values understanding interaction by employee within Google. The shared values is very important at Google because it reflects the relationship between the employer and the employees.

            Ethnic and cultural diversity is highly value asset at Google because the diverse employees team together employees with unique talent to contribute towards establishment of strong cross cultural teams. Hofstede introduced the concept of cross cultural teams  (Nasiri Pour & Amir Ashkan, 2009). Besides working with professionalism attitudes, Google also ensures that employees are integrated, and thus increases their workplace satisfaction. The senior employees are required to be friendly and thus making other junior employees to be at ease while performing their tasks (Khoshbakhti, Jafar et al, 2005). The employees are empowered and employees decide to perform the tasks that they are most comfortable and competent with. The democratic management style at Google is important in decision making process, and that too motivates all the employees becausue they feel valued. A combination of these factors makes Google a fast paced evolving organization.










Khoshbakhti, Jafar et al 2005, 'The Relationship between Leadership Styles and Quality of Life',

Movement Journal. Vol. 3, No. 24.

Nasiri Pour & Amir Ashkan 2009, 'The style of Management and Performance Indexes', Journal of Health Management.

Shafritz, J. M., & ott s. J. 2001, 'Classics of Organization Theory', Graland, FL: Harcoart, Inc.

Shahbazi, Behzad et al 2009, 'Identifying the Relationship between Quality of Life and Managers’ Performance', Journal of Governmental Management. Vol 1, No. 3. 



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Ways of addressing Vodafone’s declining market share

Over the past few years Vodafone’s market share has been highly volatile rising and dropping at high percentages that should not be the case for a company that considers itself one of the leading telecommunication companies in the United Kingdom. The declining market share will not only affect the company’s profitability but might also affect the way people in other countries perceive the company.

A research study conducted in two Carphone warehouse shops in east and west London provided important information in helping understand the effects and causes of declining market share usually after increases in market share. A quantitative analysis conducted on the data proved to be very crucial in helping understand what customers value most and from this, it is easy to deduce where Vodafone Group PLC needs to make improvements. To ensure that there was no bias from the data collected, the two carphone booths selected were supposed to offer services from other major telecommunication firms such as 02, EE, Orange, and T-mobile under the same roof.

In addition to this, there was another set of qualitative survey and analysis. This was conducted mainly in order to understand what customers want or value as of importance in their choice for mobile operator. This included some of the most important aspects including price, network quality, value added services, coverage, among other options. In both the quantitative and qualitative methodologies, there was careful analysis of the data in order to ensure that the interpretation would offer a good solution for Vodafone.

Because this paper focuses on the key elements or ways of addressing Vodafone’s declining market share, then we shall be looking at the most important decisions or decisions concerning pricing, customer satisfaction, and others necessary to attract new customers and retain current customers. This, of course will be done with respect to current market conditions within the mobile telecommunication market of the United Kingdom.  This paper will also look at how customers make decisions using information gathered from available avenues such as direct contact with employees, online, magazines or brochures (Miller, 2011).

In order for the primary and secondary data collected to be helpful, we need to realize that the key element of a customer buying a mobile device from an operator is driven by the realization that the customer needs to use a mobile device.

Information search:

Once the customer realizes this need they go on to seek information concerning which mobile operator will give them the best value. This will depend on the reasons why the customer needs the mobile device. For instance, it may be for surfing the internet, sending SMS’s, making local calls, making international calls, among other reasons.

Gaining information regarding prices and services from the company, employees, or third parties:

After this, the customer visits the company website or their retail centers in an attempt to know the prices charged as well as the services offered by each. In addition, the customer can get this information from the media, close colleagues or relatives, or any other third party.

Customer compares the prices and services offered:

After this the  customer then compares the prices and services offered by each telecommunications company, the customer will then use other information such as customer services availability, network coverage, and network quality in determining which mobile operator best suites his or her needs.

Decision making:

After gathering all of this information the customer then goes ahead and purchases a mobile device from the operator that they believe best suits their preferences.

Customer give feedback regarding services offered:

After service delivery, a customer may decide to give a feedback regarding the satisfaction level. In other cases, such feedback is only available through company surveys, or independent surveys from other institutions interested in this information in order to understand industry trends. This is the final key element in the buying process. (Miller, 2011)

The following diagram shows the key elements of choosing a mobile operations operator.

From the above diagram it is evident that the most important element is the decision making process, this process entails the customer deciding on the operator who offers the  best prices and services by gathering information from the company, its employees, its partners, or other third parties.

Within the telecommunications industry, the front office managers and the back office managers of each operator play an important role in ensuring that their businesses stay competitive. This is because they are the ones in-charge of operations management. “Operations management is about the management of the processes that produce or deliver goods and services. Not every organization will have a functional department called ‘operations’ but they will all undertake operations activities because every organization produces goods and/or services” (Greasley, 2010). Nevertheless, it is important to remember that the role of the mobile operator’s administration should not be ignored. This is because the administration’s goals and decisions affect the proper functioning of each department and this means that an inefficient administration will affect the operator’s reputation, profits, and market share, which we happen to be trying to avoid.

In any competitive industry, customer satisfaction gives any enterprise or player a competitive advantage over other players within the industry. Although customer satisfaction does lead to increased or repeat purchases, it is also true that satisfied customers are not always loyal customers. This is because customers are always sensitive to prices and in these days to changes in technology. Thus having satisfied customers does not guarantee you loyalty because if competitors develop more superior products or services then there is usually a huge change in customer base.

In addition, according to Chang (2012) increased competition usually has a negative effect on market share. For instance, because of increased competition in the first quarter of 2013 Vodafone lost close to 325,000 customers especially prepaid customers. Another example is Nokia, by not responding to increased competitor innovations, Nokia was unable to sustain its Smartphone market and eventually the company was bought by Microsoft Corporation.  As Helena Spicer notes, “though customers or consumers are price-sensitive, the customers overall concern is the value they get from the money they spend, this means that customers are not willing to just spend their money on mediocre or second-rate or products and services.

According to Leseure (2010), In order to achieve competitive advantage there is need for the operation managers to ask themselves the following questions:

  • What they can learn from the mobile operations industry?
  • How can they use price promotions effectively?
  • What leverage plans they can employ in order to attract new customers as well as retain old ones at the same time?
  • How they can fend off the competition from other players?
  • How they can reduce vulnerability to consumer or customer cutbacks?
  • How product innovation can support them in the market?
  • How to leverage raw material sourcing or Research and Development effectively?
  • How to increase customer loyalty levels?

Analyzing primary data

Currently the market share of the United Kingdom’s mobile telecommunications industry had the following mobile subscribers according to the research conducted from the two carphone warehouses in East and West London.

Mobile service provider









East London








West London
















This information represented graphically would give the following chart.

A quantitative analysis of market share or customer base revealed that there was a dramatic decline in the market share of Vodafone between 2013 and 2014 as shown in the graph below.

The research was a success because it had over 80 percent response rate. Most of the factors tested were answered although some of the respondents did not give feedback as was necessary. This caused a slight discrepancy between the current market statistics and the calculated results dues to errors, omissions, and other data analysis challenges.

The first and second questions that were asked in the questionnaire were which is your current and previous mobile operator? This information was important because it allowed for an analysis of the kind of changes that have taken place within the customer’s ownership of mobile devices. The available responses were 02, or Vodafone, or EE, or Orange, or T-Mobile, or Three, or none of the above. From the analysis, the following results were analyzed for the first and second questions respectively.

According to the results, it was clear that a majority of the customers claimed that they had left Vodafone because of a combination of unexpected prices, low network quality, and poor customer service. However, it was clear among a majority of the respondents that good network quality was the biggest factor contributing to the choice of mobile service providers.

Surprisingly according to the responses, Vodafone received the lowest score in terms of the value of customer service. This was based on a qualitative ranking system where 1 represented very poor, 2 represented poor, 4 represented neutral, 4 represented satisfies, and 5 represented excellent. This also happened to be the same case when it came to ranking the products provided by the mobile service providers.

Vodafone continued to receive the same ranking (the lowest) when it came to the responses concerning pricing, network quality, and overall satisfaction. With respect to such responses, it is important for Vodafone to seriously rethink its strategies on all these benchmarks because this will ultimately lead to decreases in market share, profitably, and brand loyalty.

Interpretation and analysis

Looking at the responses given, it is clear that Vodafone faces an uphill task in reclaiming brand loyalty and market share. This means that the management of Vodafone needs to ask themselves many questions. These questions will include how can they use price promotions effectively? How to  attract new customers as well as retain old ones at the same time?, how to improve competitive advantage, how to improve on pricing strategies?, how to improve service delivery?, among many other questions.

By rethinking their strategies and pondering these questions the company’s operations managers will be able to employ different tools and concepts of operations management in order to attain a competitive edge on its competitors. The analyzed results on the qualitative elements of customer service, pricing, network quality, products, and overall customer satisfaction are graphed below.

With such data presented from the research, it is clear that a guided understanding and application of various tools and concepts of operations management are required. This will be necessary for the managers because in the advent of cloud computing, companies may lag behind. The management of Vodafone needs to realize that the application of these applications will go a long way in assisting them to get in terms with market conditions. The use of online Apps will also be a welcome boost for Vodafone because most mobile service providers are far ahead in this development (Miller, 2011).

From the results, it is clear that EE is leading in customer reviews for three out of the five options examined. This is the reason why we find that according to the 2014 analysis EE was the leading mobile service operator with 21 percent market share as shown below.

in summary it is therefore true to conclude that effectiveness and efficiency are  two of the main operational targets for ensuring business growth as well as increasing competitive advantage of a company in both the short term and the long term. Unfortunately, it is not easy for any individual operator to achieve this because of the main challenges that exist not only within the industry but also because of internal operational challenges.  This is because all business units are affected by external and internal economic forces that make it hard for a company to stay profitable without making changes or adapting to changing economic trends (Slack et al, 2010).

As we observed earlier these challenges can result in a company losing customers regardless of the fact that it has satisfied the needs of its customers, as was the case with Nokia. In order for a firm to achieve competitive advantage, the firm needs to strategize. Having the best strategy involves a careful selection of target market, careful analysis of competitors, as well as an understanding of the clientele. In order to achieve a competitive advantage any company must be guided by the following strategic ingredients:

  • value creation,
  • vision,
  • leveraging technology,
  • global awareness,
  • planning & administration, and
  • Management of stakeholders (Ninemeier & Hayes, 2006).

All these ingredients contribute differently to an organizational strategy. The distinctive competence, which are the special skill, resources, and capabilities that enable firms to distinguish themselves from rivals enable them to create a competitive edge. In our case, Vodafone needs to strategize on areas that it has relative comparative advantage while compared to its competitors.

According to Stefan (2007), customers are usually satisfied when their expectations are met. These expectations are created by customers after viewing a firm’s products as seen from advertisements, customer needs, and experience. With the current rapid change in mobile technology, customer expectations are also rapidly changing and thus an understanding of the demand-push in the market will go a long way in restoring Vodafone’s market share. Sometimes Incidences may occur once in a while and depending on customer expectations, this may be viewed as a failure and therefore lead to customer dissatisfaction. An example of this is delays in company response, service delivery, or unstable network.

From the customer responses, it was clear that poor customer service was one of the reasons why many subscribers chose to leave Vodafone. Sometimes errors may occur during service delivery, such as when a staff member may fail to behave professionally, fail to listen to customers or the failure to react properly to customer concerns. This would also lead to dissatisfaction and may be viewed as a failure of the firm.

When incidences occur, customers are dissatisfied and may view this as a failure in Vodafone’s service delivery. Customers lose confidence with the firm and seek services elsewhere, and this will lead to a decline in market share resulting into declined revenue and profits. This is what has exactly happened to Nokia and Vodafone as we discussed earlier. Unfortunately, when the company’s staff makes mistakes, customers view this as a failure of the entire organization. This is because employees are the face of the organization, thus when there is poor service customers do not differentiate between the two. This will result into customer dissatisfaction, which will eventually affect the market share of the firm.

Possible areas of improvement for Vodafone:

From the research findings, it was clear that Vodafone subscribers complained of:

  • Liars working in customer service
  • Extremely long waiting time when calling by phone
  • Higher bills than expected
  • Poor Network coverage
  • Non-rewarded loyalty


With such negative feedback, it is important for new services to be introduced. One of the main services that the company needs to include is an incidence resolution service. This new service is supposed to record all incidences and details of affected customers. The incidence resolution service would also ensure that new improvements are made to avoid such incidences happening in future and update customers on the efforts made by the company to avoid such incidences in future.

In order to achieve this, Vodafone’s management need to improve the services provided by training the firm’s staff on what is expected of them and the best ways to approach customer needs. Customers should also be offered an opportunity to file complaints against staff, this will aid in maintaining professional standards across the firm.

Additionally the company needs to put more efforts on online marketing and self-service platforms. This will lead to a reduction in the number of people seeking assistance from the customer service desk. This in turn will make it easier for customer relations agent to give more time to the customers who will choose to have their problems resolved through this mode. Online marketing is increasingly becoming the norm and so the company needs to make bolder steps in order to be at par with its rivals (Gay, Charlesworth, & Esen, 2006).

Reason for improvement:

From the data presented above it is clear that EE is the leading mobile services operator. From the same results, it is also clear that EE is also leading in the overall customer satisfaction. This is an indication that customer satisfaction is a necessary although not sufficient condition for increasing market share. Improvements are made to ensure that customers are satisfied and keep returning for more services. Failure to improve on incidences that occur occasionally, will result into dissatisfaction to customers and thus lead to reduced demand. The improvement of company services will also ensure that customer relations are maintained as well as improve brand loyalty. Failing to offer customers an opportunity to file their complaints will lead to a decline in the level of returning customers. Offended customers will opt to choose services from competitors resulting into a decline in market share. By introducing these services, customer satisfaction will eventually increase.

Benefits to be realized:

From the above analysis and interpretation, it is clear that:

  • Low customer satisfaction leads to a decline in Market share
  • Customer service has a big impact on overall satisfaction
  • Price has an impact on overall satisfaction
  • Product quality has an impact on overall satisfaction
  • Competition has an impact on market share

Bearing this in mind then it is clear that there are many benefits to be realized by the customers and the company as well. With respect to the company, Vodafone is set to benefit from improved or increased market share, brand loyalty, and profitability. On the other hand, subscribers will benefit from better customer care, better network quality, as well as a reduction in pricing.

By introducing an incidence resolution center, the firm will position itself as a caring firm toward its customer needs and expectations. The firm will be viewed as friendly and concerned with the customer satisfaction. This will eliminate the notion that the company is only interested on profits alone. Error reporting services on the other hand, will position the brand as being protective against offensive acts.


From the analysis above it is clear that, the quality of services offered in any industry including the mobile services operator industry is a very important factor for operating a business successfully. Complete or total quality management is an existing and still ongoing trend in the industry that helps businesses to achieve a competitive edge over its rivals. Thus, different entities are involved in studying ways through which companies can improve the quality of their services in order to gain a competitive edge.

However, the most important thing that all staff members need to understand is that the firm operates within an external terrain or environment. Unfortunately or fortunately, this environment can change against or in favor of the company at stake. For instance over the last five or so years there has been a tremendous change in mobile devices and as a result a change in consumer tastes associated with it. This means that Vodafone also needs to change the kind of value added services associated with these new trends. Thus, in order to stay competitive a firm needs to avert potential threats, discover new opportunities, apply strength to new fields, sustain existing strength, and overcome current weaknesses (Armstrong, & Kotler, 1999).

In order for there to be a success in any strategy chosen, the company must ensure that there is complete analysis, formulation, implementation, and evaluation. Just like in any other industry or company, there is need to conduct an internal and external analysis of the firm before determining whether the value creation competency will be customer focused or competitor focused. To achieve this, a SWOT analysis and a PESTLE analysis needs to be carried out in order to understand in which direction the company is likely to achieve a competitive edge over its rivals regardless of whether the firm is a small enterprise or a large multinational(Armstrong, & Kotler, 1999).

Thus, in any industry a firm needs to provide economic value to their customers by creating as well as offering high quality services in the marketplace. With the same effort that a firm tries to do this, the firm needs to be able to distinguish itself and its quality of service from those of its competitors or rivals. This is because a firm’s quality of service will only be valuable in the eyes of the consumer if the firm is able to create a distinction between its services from those of its competitors.

In order for a firm to gain competitive advantage, there is need to measure qualitatively and quantitatively its quality of service. Regardless of whether the firm uses the internal quality or SERVQUAL model of measurement, the main goal should be total satisfaction of the customer.





Armstrong, G. & Kotler, P. (1999). Principles of Marketing. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ:       Prentice Hall.

Dess, G., Lumpkin, T.  & Eisner, B. (2006). Strategic Management: Text and Cases.         Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Fitzsimmons, J. & Fitzsimmons, M. (2011). Service Management: operations, strategy,    information technology. Philadelphia: McGraw-Hill.

Gay, R., Charlesworth, A., & Esen, R. (2006). Online marketing: A customer-led approach.         Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Greasley, A. (2010). Operations Management. 2nd ed. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Leseure, M. (2010). Key concepts in operations management. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Lovelock, Christopher (2010). Services Marketing. New Jersey: Prentice hall publishing.

Michel, Stefan (2007). Analyzing service failures and recoveries: a process approach. International Journal of service industry management. Vol. 12 (1) 2007. Pp 20 to 33.

Ninemeier, J. & Hayes, D. (2006). Restaurant Operations Management: Principles and    Practices. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Robert Miller (2011).The New Strategic Selling: The Unique Sales System. New York: black Well press.

Slack, N. Chambers, S. & Johnston, R. (2010). Operations Management. 6th ed. England:            Pearson Prentice Hall.



Published in Uncategorised
Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:11

30 Days television series









30 Days

            In the world, one faces many life-changing events that may be very challenging. This is what the protagonist, Morgan Spurlock, proves in the television series 30 Days. Through the three seasons, Spurlock, alias Super Size Me, goes through transformation, which he finds it too hard for a normal human being to persevere. In the series, the major themes that are focused on include jail, minimum wage, sex orientation, outsourcing, gun copntrol,andabortion debates, among others This essay reviews three episodes; these include pro-choice/pro-life, Same Sex parenting, and Immigration

            The first episode, Immigration, reveals the manner in which immigration is a great contentious issues in the United States of America. This is because of the threats the illegal immigrants pose to America’s homeland security. In the episode, a border patrol, Frank George, an American legal immigrant lives with an illegal immigrant in one bedroom apartment despite the fact that George upholds the immigration laws. Through the episodes, it is apparent thatthe effect of illegal immigration on the United States is a contentious issue. There are people who argue the illegal immigrants have positive impacts on the economy while others argue that they have negative impacts. Irrespective of either argument, the illegal immigrants affect the United States economy directly and indirectly. They engage in many economic activities that include buying goods and services, consuming government services, provision of labor, and paying taxes among others. These activities affect the lives of the Americans straightforwardly. They affect the wage rate and the employment rate, demand of goods, health care and increase the legal expenses. Many scholars have invested their resources in efforts to determine whether the illegal immigrants add value to the United States Economy. A number argue that the illegal immigrants adversely affect the economy because they use the United States public amenities. Further, there is no documentation of the cost of illegal immigration. Although there are costs of illegal immigration, there are more benefits to the United States economy than the costs. The illegal immigrants benefit the United States much than they benefit from the government. The government benefits from illegal immigrants because they supply labor, pay taxes, control the price levels, and pay the social security taxes. That means that the United States government benefits from the illegal immigrants more than the illegal immigrants benefit from the government.

            The debate on the impact of the illegal immigration has continued over a long period. According to Isidore (2006), many scholars argue that illegal immigrants have negative consequences on the United States Economy. The adverse effects on the economy include displacing the United States citizens from the job market. The unskilled citizens are the principle victims of displacement. The unskilled United States workers are mainly the poor and the young. Recent statistics reveal that the majority of people who are being employed in the United States are illegal immigrants. These illegal immigrants are taking the job opportunities for the young Americans. The United States population increase is attributed to the increasing number of illegal immigrants.

            The illegal immigrants provide cheap labor that contributes to economic growth. That means the cheap labor reduces the chances of economic growth making illegal immigration extremely important factor for economic development. The inflation is controlled because of low cost of production of goods. That eventually makes the cost of goods and services to be low. The United States consumers enjoy the low cost of goods because the immigrant workers are paid low wages. The low wages enables the highly skilled Americans to enjoy better wages. Majority of the illegal immigrants mostly works in the construction industry. If the illegal immigrants were denied these jobs, the cost of construction would go up. That would affect the economy adversely. The demand for labor would rise too, and that will lead to higher cost of construction due to low supply of cheap labor. In case the illegal immigrants are not in the United States, some jobs they do could not be done.

            The presence of the illegal immigrants has made many middle class American citizens to benefit from better wages. The better wages increase their purchasing power, and their disposable income. That enables them to have better living standards. For example, majority of the middle class Americans can afford house help. Cracking down the illegal immigrants results to shortage of the labor force. The labor-intensive sector of the economy like agriculture is negatively affected. Such action can result to losses in the industry.

            The legality of abortion remains a global debate between the pro-choice and pro-life. Thus, the fourth episode of the second season of 30 Days highlights the arguments brought by both proponents and opponents of abortion. Jennifer, who happens to advocate for pro-choice and had carried out abortion six years ago has to life with a family that advocates for pro-life. Although the whole family faces crisis due to pregnancy, Jennifer their pro-life arguments does not sway the pro-life to become pro-choice, neither were her attitude change from her experiences in the maternity homes.           In the United States of America and any other country in the world, every human being is born with the right to life, which is fundamental. It is of paramount importance to note that majority of women are aware of their menstrual cycles and they still engage in consensual and unprotected when they are aware that they would become pregnant. Most of them fail to use any protection because they are aware that they would secure an abortion if need be. The age of human beings does not matter in the right to life. During conception and pregnancy, human life should not be terminated. People play around with the life of innocent fetuses because they are defenseless. However, every human being should understand that s/he was once at that stage of life. Why should this innocent child be denied the right to life something that is given to every other human being. However, this is what abortion does.

Abortion should be illegal because there are other options available that could still give the innocent child an opportunity to live. By choosing these options, the baby’s right to life will not be denied. For example, there are couples who do not have the ability to conceive or sire children. These couples would like to adopt children because of their situations. Therefore, women who would like to commit abortion because they do not want to bear the pregnancies or they are not morally and financially stable, should bear the pregnancies, and give their newborn babies to the people who would like to adopt children. Furthermore, they can take their babies to children orphanages where they can be raised. Abortion should be illegalized because people can choose other ways of having them raised by foster parents.

All the people are equal in the eyes of the Lord and life begins at conception. According to the bible, murder is a sin and killing a fetus is murder because a fetus is a living thing although it is dependent on its mother. Fetuses are referred to as children in the bible as can be seen in the case of John the Baptist when the bible says the child jumped in her mother’s (Elizabeth) womb when Elizabeth met Virgin Mary (New Jerusalem). This shows the reason why abortion should be illegalized because it is against the teachings of the Lord. On the other hand, measures should be put in place that ensure that babies who are unwanted by their mothers have access to foster care instead of terminating their lives while they are still in the womb. Legalizing abortion is like encouraging women to live carefree lives because they know they will terminate a pregnancy if it happens. Moreover, men should be taught to be responsible for their acts and discourage them from engaging in unprotected sex.

In the episode on Same Sex Parenting, it is evident that in virtually every society, a set of designated norms represents the manner in which individuals ought to behave and carry themselves. These sets of designated norms represent the moral fabric of humanity. The issue of sexuality remains an overly sensitive one in the world today; commentators consider sexuality as one of the most contentious issues of our times as displayed by Kati, Patrick, and Dennis. In the United States, for instance, sexual orientation is a partisan political issue. While an overwhelming section of the global community considers same sex relations abnormal and grotesque, a passionate minority endorses the idea that the freedom of choice ought to prevail over every other consideration. Issues of sexual orientation have sparked fierce debate. As debate rages on, a section of activists continues to lobby for full and unconditional acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in society. Over the years, LGBT has gained the status of a social movement that endures to date.

The movement for legislation of same-sex union has become a prevalent aspect of western culture in the contemporary period. The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community identifies with the abbreviation LGBT. The discourse of LGBT has been in force since the 1990s. Looking back to the mid 20th century, the idea of gay rights was virtually unknown. Further research indicates that LGBT rights fall under the category of both civil rights and human rights. As debate rages on whether to tolerate same sex relations, a good number of individuals remain ‘in the closet’, which is the informal reference of owning up to homosexuality.

Amid hatred, animosity and constant stigmatization, the movement for the acceptance of LGBT people remains resolute. In their unwavering determination, gay rights activists have registered a seemingly remarkable progress in the road towards gaining full and unconditional acceptance from the society. Jody Brannon of the National Journal notes that as at May 2013, 51 US Senators backed gay unions, and with the recent trend, it is increasingly easier to jump into the ‘gay band wagon’ than it is to resolve the gun stalemate in the United States. LGBT seems to be winning the fight for recognition of same sex unions. Call it Rainbow Spring; legislators in the United States and the UK have come out openly declaring their support for gay marriage faster than anyone would have anticipated in the dawn of the millennium.







Brannon, J. (May 2013). “Mapping the Same-Sex Marriage Movement”, National Journal. Retrieved from

Isidore, C.  (1 May 2006). "Illegal workers: good for U.S. economy." CNNMoney. Retrieved from

The New Jerusalem Bible




Published in Uncategorised



Project title: Parish nurses in promotion of community health







The church us an integral part of the community. Despite offering religious growth to members of the community, the church has an impeccable infrastructure through which community health can be enhanced. By having a wider reach of the community the church has since time immemorial been of considerable help in promotion of community health. It is in this regard that parish nurses continue to be an integral part of the national health system.

Collaboration with health institutions

The church has in its own way developed modalities to reach out to communities. This includes even the minority groups who live far beyond the considerable poverty index by the governments. Provision of health services to such groups has continually been below par through government agencies but has always been a success when church based organizations are involved. This owes to the fact that the community has much faith in these organizations when compared to the government. It is owing to this perspective that the parish nurse initiative can provide a wider platform through which communities can be reached easily.

Improving public health

Indicators from governments and World Health Organization show that much of the national kitty is used on issues pertaining to health. However to ensure that the effectiveness of this kitty is ascertained there is need to reach out to communities living below par. This community believes much in church based organizations such as the parish nurses who offer services based more o humanitarian grounds other than public responsibility. It is in such that collaboration with government these services can be enhanced to ensure they reach the wider majority.


For any government to succeed, matters of health are of paramount importance. They require the input of all interested parties a factor that always ensures that every detail is covered. Parish nurses have the capacity and capability to reach out to communities and drive a change in health matters.















US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy People 2010, 2nd ed. With understanding and improving health and objectives for improving health. 2 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office; Nov 2000, p.45. Available from:

Starfield B, (1998). Primary care: Balancing health needs, services and technology. New York: Oxford University Press.


Published in Uncategorised
Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:10

Why the Death Penalty should not be allowed






The death penalty is still in practice in the United States and a number of other countries. However, the penalty should be struck off on account of its nature. This paper looks at the pros and cons of the death penalty and explains why this penalty should not be still in practice. It examines the issue from a legal stand point and a moral stand point, looks at statistics of death row inmates and finally the unique nature of this penalty



Death Penalty

For most of the statutes surrounding the death penalty cases, mental illness is one of the few factors that can be used for mitigation. The Supreme Court has previously ruled that sentencing a mentally ill person to the gallows is unusual and comes out as a very unusual punishment citing the eighthamendments1for the matters surrounding capital punishment not being served to these criminally insane (Prejean, 2005). However, the death penalty is not only cruel and inhuman for the mentally ill, but for all individuals. It violates the eighth amendment for all those sentenced.

The Penalty is unfair since most of the time the penalty favors the rich who are able to hire lawyers who defend them and get them out on technicalities. The law in this regard is being corrupted as the attorney skill and one’s ability to get the best attorneys. The penalty will therefore not befall the most deserving but those who cannot defend themselves to the highest of standards (Megivern, 1997).

The death penalty has also been proven to be more expensive than most of the other penalties like life imprisonment. It is therefore just costly for the taxpayer since the penalty does not play a part in cutting down the crime rates. Most of the law enforcement officers also agree that the death penalty does not cut down on the capital offenses (Soifer, 2009).

Just like any other crime, those sentenced to the death penalty might also be innocent. However, the death penalty unlike other crimes is irreversible, In America only, over 100 death row inmates have had their sentences overturned for innocence in the past three years (Megivern, 1997).

It should however be noted that a great number of the criminals on death row or heading to get capital punishment are mentally ill.On the subject of ethics of criminals for criminally insane, the punishment is described as the deliberate act to punish a criminal by ending his life (Soifer, 2009). Different scholars have different views on the morality of capital punishment for the criminals, and for the sake of the moral discussion as advanced by Perlin, Melton et al; we look at capital punishment for the capital offenders as cruel and unusual. The eighth amendment is strictly against cruel and unjust punishment and thus imposing a death penalty against someone goes against this amendment. (Perlin, 1994).

Majority of the sentenced criminals furthermore are mentally ill. The conservative estimate by organizations in particular the Mental Health America (MHA) puts the number of death row convicts with mental health illnesses at 10 percent. Worse yet is research that has shown nearly all the death row inmates have brain damage an d as such their mental status is unstable. A number of these criminals come from backgrounds of sexual abuse and physical trauma which resulted in their mental retardation (Soifer, 2009). 

The United Nations and many organizations for human rights agree that the death penalty is unfair given the unlikeliness of the crimes being done under normal brain functioning.  Furthermore, the aim of punishment is correction and murder does not give an opportunity for correction (Megivern, 1997). Taking life for capital crimes further defeats the lesson to be passed across as its murdering someone for murder is rather ironic.

In crafting this argument one looks at the probability that the genetic humanity is enough for moral humanity.  One poses the question of what traits make an entity be classified as a normal human in the moral sense. There are a number of characteristics (Soifer, 2009).

The arguments on morality puts forward that murder is wrong and noone should not be sentenced to death. The argument however is countered by a number of individuals who point that in this train of thought, that they have done capital mistakes regardless of morality clauses they should face serious enough punishments, and as such should face the death penalty and not gain any moral treatment. It however requires a stronger justification for capital punishment, and so is the incarceration of the death row criminals (Sheffer& Cushing, 2006).

The mental status of most of these criminals at the time of murders also requires that they be given a chance. Supporting the murder for such crimes is cruel and inhuman. While most criminals are aware of what their actions; their sanity is still a matter that can shape their actions. To be consistent in this line of argument, one would be supporting the murder of juveniles who commit capital offenses and also the extremely mentally ill who commit crimes at one point (Jan, 2002).

Others on the other hand argue on why letting the crimes go unpunished is immoral. This argument begins by an analysis of the debate by pro choicer who looks at the moral principle regarding killing being narrow, a standard that is adopted by most of the world laws. The ones for punishment befitting the crime on the other hand seek to look at a wide moral principle guiding killing such that should anyone have committed such capital offenses like murder, they should also receive capital punishments which would imply drastic punishments for other crimes like assault for example (Jan, 2002). The point being that murder being a crime, it defeats all sense to punish it by murder.

This argument is same for the he individuals who do argue that all criminals should be given punishments fitting their crimes since in this case, murder is a heinous crime deserving a heavy sentence, but using the same murder as a punishment does not promote the morality of the issue (Jan, 2002).

Amnesty international points out that what makes killing of capital offenders immoral is not how it affects the relatives and friends of the victims or the murderer but the effect on the capital punishment victim. They point out that the loss of life by the victim denies him life experiences, projects and varieties that may have been part of their future (Malone, 2007).

Killing of a capital offence criminal as punishment is therefore wrong since is unfair and in violation of the eighth amendment. Unlike the arguments on how liberty consideration is necessary for the capital offenders, this argument considers the future value of the life of such a criminal land as such does not completely rule out active euthanasia and other safe capital punishment methods (Megivern, 1997).

Capital offenders who are criminally insane cannot make conscious or deliberate choices hence reducing the validity of their right to protection from capital punishment and validating the death sentences since a majority of them do the crimes with full awareness of their actions. The argument can be made that even if they are aware of their choices their psychosis, delusions and hallucinations drive them make such deliberate and conscious choices (Greene & Heilbrun, 2010).

Most people argue that the death penalty is suitable since the crimes are mostly intentional. However, research shows that almost all these crimes occur under a form of mental lapse. On the carrying out their actions deliberately, Mental Health America points that the argument that since the mentally ill carry out capital offenses mostly when aware is invalid. Most of these criminals and capital offenders have no rational thought since they cannot engage in making deliberate choices and therefore such arguments against sentencing them to death citing their inability to make sane decisions as ground enough for them not being sentenced to death.

As such most organizations and countries acknowledge that murder is not a suitable punishment and that other sentences like life imprisonment should be granted to a capital offences or criminals sentenced to death which is a more suitable approach as opposed to capital punishments for them. Ideally, countries consider insanity as a plea against capital punishments for example in the American systems where such pleas are covered by the eight amendments on punishments being fair and not cruel and unusual. In this regard the laws are meant to protect those who did not have a sane state of mind at the time of their offenses. However, there should not just be a small window of cruel and unjust; the entire death penalty should be scrapped off (Soifer, 2009).

Those for the death penalty for the mentally insane therefore content that there is no unjust aspect of this punishment since in the case that they have been found guilty and sentenced to death, the punishment has been determined for that crime, and therefore there is no fundamental problem. They point out that in performing murder for such capital offenders, the aim is to deter others from such crimes, justice is served and as such there is no sense in arguing cruelty (Prejean, 2005).

They point out that the central argument against this sort of punishment is cruelty and harm to a person, and since harm to a person is essentially denying liberty, the absence of libertarian rights for capital offenders therefore is the final argument. A death sentence for a capital offender is not immoral or unjust on libertarian grounds given the definition of liberty (Malone, 2007).

The reasoning for the death penalty for the criminals found guilty of capital offenses is that such criminals left people hurt and as such the death penalty gives the families of their victims and those affected by their capital offences closure. The families and friends are more contend when the offenders get a suitable punishment in this line of reasoning. They also argue that the capital offenders should not be given special treatment in case they committed such capital offences in order to deter others from committing crime and pleading insanity. However, this reasoning is ironic since the justice system should not aim at revenging rather at offering a punishment for the crime. Furthermore, it has been shown that the death penalty does not really cut down the taxpayer spending on sustaining criminals but is instead more expensive (Jan, 2002).

In the case of the eighth amendment, those for the death penalty argue that this and several articles of the constitution show more sympathy for the offenders and as such in case a sentence has been passed, it is safe to assume that the punishment befits the crime. Other criminal offenders are deterred from committing such offenses and pleading insanity since such an argument would be invalidated by the courts (Malone, 2007).

The argument is that if proof has been offered beyond reasonable doubt that an individual committed a crime, regardless of the mental status, the individual should be punished for the crime. With DNA testing and the advanced testing methods, such proof is usually beyond any doubt and as such it then follows that the offenders should receive punishment for their crime (Jan, 2002).

Another thought floated by those for capital punishment in case of capital offenses is that in case these criminals are granted parole or escape punishment through the insanity argument, they are bound to commit the offences again when released back to the society. Should they not receive punishment, such criminal offenders will commit worse offenses (Jan, 2002).

The argument for death penalty also cites overcrowding in the prisons being reduced through the death penalty. Life in prison for mentally ill capital offenders only crowds the prisons and contributes to these correctional facilities being over populated. Since the capital offenders deserve capital punishment, regardless of their mental status, capital death penalty will help cut down on overpopulation of these prisons (Jan, 2002).

The death penalty however remains cruel and unfair. The arguments against the death penalty or supporting the death penalty for capital offenders center around the nature of the punishment-whether it is just or unjust (Megivern, 1997).

While the main point is the cruel and unusual nature of a death punishment which thus violates the eighth amendment, morality of the punishment is also in question. This argument is however countered by the argument pointing the need for justice and how capital offences should receive capital punishments. Since the criminals committed murder and atrocious crimes bordering murder, the punishment meted out to them is just and not cruel (Malone, 2007).

It is clear that for rehabilitation to occur the criminals have to be given a chance to correct their errors. These criminals were unaware of their actions at the time of these crimes and as such should not be punished for crimes committed in their insanity. Those for the capital punishment however insist that the offenders were aware of the crimes they were committing and therefore should be punished for them. Letting them go unpunished they argue would result in them commit other crimes (Megivern, 1997).

The opposition to the death penalty is justified since murder is universally recognized as immoral. The idea that without a death penalty justice is not served may seem exaggerated given that life in prison is also punishment enough and a deterrent for other crimes. However, it remains to be seen whether the society will all unite behind one stand, either for or against death penalty for the mentally ill.




Malone, D. (2007). Cruel and Inhumane: Executing the Mentally Ill. Retrieved 25 November 2012 from Here the author concentrates on why it is cruel to execute the mentally ill. Malone discusses the cruelty of the death punishment and how it is against the international statutes. His work focusses on the on mentally ill.

Megivern, J. J. (1997). The Death Penalty: An Historical and Theological Survey. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press: the author examines the history of the death penalty in western countries. It is a chronological account of all the milestones of the death penalty. He focusses on inconsistencies that the law has had over time.

Melton, G. et al. (1997). Psychological EvaluationsForThe Courts: A HandbookFor Mental Health ProfessionalsAnd Lawyers, 190-93 2nd Ed. New York: Taylor & Francis Group: Melton looks at the examination that courts use for mental evaluation of capital offenders. He discusses how this examination is what determines the direction of the trial and the sentences.  He offers the general position that the courts take regarding capital offenses and the results of examinations.

Jan, N. (2002). Moral Matters, 2nd Ed. London: Broadview Press: Jan generally talks of moral matters in humanity. He discusses the limits of morals and virtues accepted universally and discusses why murder of any form, is immoral.

Perlin, M. (1994). “The Jurisprudence of The Insanity Defense 38-39 with Amerigo Farina et al., Role of Stigma and Set in Interpersonal Interaction.” 71 Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 421: 38-9: Here the authors discuss how lawyers use the insanity defense to get off their clients. In this case, the authors bring out the corrupted system that allows the reach get off from doing worse crimes while the poor get the punishments. Perlin therefore questions the fairness of the death penalty.

Prejean, H. (2005). The Death of Innocents: An Eyewitness Account of Wrongful Executions. New York: Random House: Prejean explains why the judicial sentences are killin innocent people. She has accounts of wrongly convicted individuals. Prejean also discusses the current law regarding

Sheffer, S. & Cushing, R. (2006). “Creating More Victims: How Executions Hurt the Families Left Behind.” Murder Victims Families for Human Rights:  New York: Atheneum: this is a report that is an account of family members of individuals executed by the American justice system. The author looks at how such experiences are traumatic for the family members. Through this report the authorslok at the cruel nature of the death penalty.

Soifer, E. (2009). Ethical Issues: Perspectives for Canadians 3rd Ed., ed. London: Broadview Press: Soifer talks of ethical issues in general. With regards to capital punishment Soifer discusses the ethics of a death penalty. He explains why the death penalty is just murder guised under the law.






1The eighth amendment is a part of the American constitution that has laws against the federal government from imposing excessive bails or fines and/or making cruel and unusual punishments.

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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:09

Beverley High School Organization Structure




Beverley High School Organization Structure

Beverley High is a girl’s only school located in the East Riding of Yorkshire, the school has over 800 students and employs over 100 teaching and support staff. This paper focuses on the elements of this organization, it discusses the organization structure that exists in the school. The structure is important in that it gives guidelines and at the same time binds employees in that it gives meaning and identify to the employees.

There exist three elements in organization structure regardless of which structure exists in an organization, these elements include:

  1. Governance or control
  2. Rules governing the organization
  3. Work distribution


Governance or control

The governance or control element refers to the individual or individuals that make decision in the organization, Beverley High school has this element whereby there is a group of governors who make decisions and resolve conflicts that may arise in the organization.

Rules governing the organization:

This is another element evident in the organization structure. There exists rules and regulations that govern the organsiation, some of these rules governing the organsiation include those that affect all stake holders including the teachers, support staff, students and parents. For example the most evident rule concerns school uniform and students code of conduct.

Work distribution:

Distribution of work refers to the division of labor in an organization, At Beverley High there is division of labor among the staff members. One of the most evident distribution of work is the formal division of labour among its employees, the school has a head teacher whose role is to oversee the running of the school, there is support staff whose work is to ensure the smooth running of the school such as librarians, cleaners and accountants, and There is the teachers whose role is to teach the students. 





 The school is governed by a board of governors, the role of the governors is to make decisions and also resolve conflicts that may emerge. The form of control applied in this organsiation is therefore hierarchical in nature. The governors make decisions which are passed on to the head teacher of the school, the head teacher on the other hand controls the support staff and the teachers.



About Beverley High School

Message from the headteacher


Beverley High School is the only girls’ school in the East Riding of Yorkshire. We are a community of 816 students, including 120 in our Sixth Form, which forms part of the Beverley Joint Sixth Form with Beverley Boys’ Grammar School, and over 100 staff.


We are proud to be a caring, forward and outward looking community where pupils learn within a safe, supportive and happy environment. We have a strong reputation for providing excellent pastoral care and guidance; high quality teaching and delivering excellent student outcomes. We have excellent facilities and these, alongside committed teachers and support staff, hardworking pupils, supportive parents and dedicated governors; help us to create a positive school ethos.


We have excellent relationships with our local community and with our neighbouring schools and colleges, as well as strong partnerships with schools as far afield as Japan and Sri Lanka. We are proud of our school’s past in educating the girls of Beverley for over 100 years. Yet we are forward thinking and seek to recognise, nurture and celebrate all our students’ differing talents be they academic, artistic or sporting.


We hope that our website gives you a flavour of what our school has to offer.


Sharon Japp Headteacher



Beverley High School is pleasantly situated in the centre of the attractive market town of Beverley in the East Riding of Yorkshire. The catchment area is socially mixed and provides a full range of ability, taking students from Beverley and the surrounding villages of Tickton, Walkington, Wawne and Woodmansey.





The school has a committed staff of 50 full-time equivalent teachers and they reflect across-section of age and experience. There are over 120 staff employed by the school of which 60 are teachers (full and part-time).







Three girls talking in the playground



Pupil Support


Every pupil is assigned on entry to one of five mixed ability tutor groups, which are also house groups. Most of the social life of the school takes place within these Houses, for example there are regular inter-house competitions in most sports and for overall progress in academic work.


A pupil usually remains with her tutor group for five years. She has, where possible, the same form tutor from Years 7 to 11. Year Leaders are responsible for pupils within a particular year group and an Assistant Head teacher has responsibility for the Joint Sixth Form she is responsible for pupils in Years 12-13 on both Beverley High School and Beverley Grammar School sites.





(2) Individual essay (65%)


During the module you will need to be thinking of an organisation or areas which you might want to consider further through your own study. For example, you might choose a school, a hospital or a prison, or you might go for a partnership organisation.


 In some cases your choice might include elements of each- eg- a school which is in a partnership. This will require you to do independent research and find your own sources, which can be complimented by the generic sources given in the handbook. Advice on how to approach this will be given during seminars as the module progresses, and the final lecture session is set aside for assignment guidance.


If you wish to check that your chosen organisation or partnership project is an appropriate one to study, you may provide a short outline of your chosen study for your tutor to comment on. You tutor will discuss this further with you in your seminars.


You must hand in one hard copy at the Business School Reception/ hand-in desk on or before the hand-in date, with a signed front sheet, and also submit one copy through the module site on the module Blackboard site via Turnitin

The assessment criteria for the two pieces of work follow below, followed by some more extensive guidance on the second assignment


for 3000 words

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