Items filtered by date: December 2021

Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:17

Understanding Complex Information





Understanding Complex Information





In order to ensure that the learners follow the taught topic, it is important to engage. Engaging learners is done in a number of strategies. Some of these are short practical lessons on the subject, use of visual aids, asking questions, short discussions among the learners, and allowing the learners to ask questions too (Lucas, 2010). Practical classes involve arranging lessons in which the leaners can exercise or see what they are learning as if they were in the real world. From the practical lessons, the learners are able to interact with a virtual real world. Visuals aids include power point presentations in which the learners are able to follow the instructor as he conducts the lesson (Frey, Fisher&Everlove, 2009). The instructor can also engage the learners through asking questions. The learners have to be keen in what is being taught so that they can answer the questions correctly. The instructor can also arrange discussions among the leaners so that those who have understood the lesson better can help others. Lastly, the instructor should allow a session for the learners to ask questions to ensure that they are following (Griffith& Burns, 2012). 

These strategies are very crucial in my profession. As a manager in my future career, I expect to work with several followers. In order to ensure that they follow the given instructions and excel in their production and performance, I have to ensure that they actively follow the guidelines I give. I will allow my followers to ask for clarification and also ask them some questions so that I ascertain that they clearly understood what is expected of them. Whenever I am introducing a new way of doing things, I will use visual aids and also arrange the followers in small groups for further discussions. I will also arrange some practical lessons in which we will have the new strategy implemented and we all see the results together before allowing each employee to work on his own.  




Frey, N., Fisher, D., &Everlove, S. (2009). Productive group work: How to engage students, build teamwork, and promote understanding. Alexandria, Va: ASCD.

Griffith, A., & Burns, M. (2012).Outstanding teaching: Engaging learners.Bancyfelin: Crown House.

Lucas, R. W. (2010). Energize your training: Creative techniques to engage learners. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.


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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:17

Brain Functions Graphic Organizer





 Brain Functions Graphic Organizer







Prefrontal cortex (frontal lobe)

The Harper of the anterior shell before the forehead

Since one among the four cerebrum areas in the upper brain, it is linked with behavior, control of muscle and eye movement, problem solving, verbal expression, planning, and willpower (Jensen, 2005).

Temporal lobe

Husk, time

It is a cerebrum area in both sides of the cerebrum and acts as a memory processor for emotional memory, sense of identity, smelling/ hearing senses, and understanding speech (Orlich, 2013).

Occipital lobe

Back of the head

It is located at the back of the cerebrum to process, receive, interpret, and discriminate optical information as well as affect reading (Koster, 2014).

Parietal lobe


It is among the four cerebrum areas at the top of the brain and responds to internal impetuses as well as helped in reading, calculation, language, and writing(Jensen, 2005). 

Limbic region

Border, fringe

This is a group of linked parts in the midbrain region and helps in emotions, social bonding, motivation, attitude, and drive(Orlich, 2013).  


Little brain

It is near the brain stem just beneath the occipital lobe. It helps in regulating balance and posture, coordinating muscle movements, and identifying muscle overuse(Jensen, 2005).



It is almond in shape and located in the midbrain. It acts as the major processing region for senses such as memories and emotional responses as well as regulating heartbeat and cognition(Jensen, 2005). 


Sea monster/ horse

It is crescent in shape and located in the central brain dealing with memory formation and learning. It also helps in processing and storing new memories(Orlich, 2013).  


Inner chamber

It is deep within the midbrain processing different types of sense as well as regulating and maintaining consciousness on daily basis(Koster, 2014). 


Inner chamber

Being located in the bottom of the midbrain, it helps in maintaining hemostasis as well as regulating reflexes, hormone secretion, sexual responses, circulation, sleep, emotions, and thirst/ appetite(Jensen, 2005). 

Corpus callosum

Hard body

It is made of so many axons to connect and communicate with both the right and left sides of the brain(Orlich, 2013).



It is the most external part of the cerebrum containing brain cells (neurons) (Koster, 2014).



It is located beyond the medulla and bridges ascending tracts coming from the medulla and descending tracts coming from the midbrain(Jensen, 2005).  

Medulla oblongata

Long and most internal marrow

It helps in channeling data between the spinal cord and the cerebral hemispheres control wakefulness, heart rate, circulation, and breathing(Koster, 2014).



Acting as nerve cells, neurons communicate through electrical and chemical transmissions(Orlich, 2013).

Glial cells

Cellular tissue

They transfer nutrients and help myelinate axons(Jensen, 2005). 



Send information from dendrites to other neurons(Koster, 2014).



They are receptor centers for axons as well as creating junctions at the synapse. 



A gap separating two neurons helping information from one neuron to flow to the other(Jensen, 2005).



These are biochemical messengers and thus excite/ hinder nearby neurons(Orlich, 2013).





Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the brain in mind.London: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Koster, J. (2014).Growing artists: Teaching the arts to young children. New York: Cengage Learning.

Orlich, D. C. (2013).Teaching strategies: A guide to effective instruction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:16

Facts on the brain and the nervous system



Facts on the brain and the nervous system








The brain is an important part of any being. It acts as the control centre for all the events and undertaking by the being. It contains various parts that are wired together to give an interaction of various activities within and outside the body (Baum WM 2005). In this regard it is a great multi-tasking tool that in conjunction with the rest of the nervous system controls the activities of the body.

The central nervous system

This comprises of the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain and the spinal cord. While the brain parts are protected by the skull, the spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae condrum. These form a vast network through a matter of grey cells referred to as ganglia and which contain the white matter tracts. It is through these tracts that communication is sent from the brain to the rest of the body and vice versa (Standring, Susan 2005). Such are the muscles that control the muscles and hence enabling body activity.

Assistance in brain growth in children

Growth of the brain is enhanced by intercommunication between various interacting cells. For the youngsters, the process starts with induction followed by migration. This involves development of the relevant cells and placement of the cells at the appropriate place (Finger S 2001). In the early stages of human development, the brain is known to have lots of plasticity. This is the ability to perceive and record the happening surrounding an individual person. It is this that forms the platform for the learning processes among children and as such an important factor in human development. This is enhanced through development of the common senses of a human being (Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessel TM, 2000).


Baum WM (2005). Understanding behaviorism: Behavior, Culture and Evolution. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-1262-8

Finger S (2001). "Ch. 1: The brain in antiquity". Origins of neuroscience: a history of explorations into brain function. Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514694-3

Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessel TM, ed. (2000). "Ch. 17: The anatomical organization of the central nervous system". Principles of Neural Science. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-8385-7701-1.

Standring, Susan (Editor-in-chief) (2005). Gray's Anatomy (39th ed.). Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. pp. 233–234. ISBN 978-0-443-07168-3.

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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:16

The Four Forces of Evolution




The Four Forces of Evolution




The Four Forces of Evolution


            Evolution is an essential aspect in biology for it ensures that organisms adapt to changes, which occur in their environment. Notably, Genetics determine the ability of organisms to survive in a given environment. Parents pass on favorable genetic material that would ensure reduced chances of extinction of a given species(Haviland et al, 2012).

Species, Population and Variation

            Species are organisms that share the same genetic material and as a result, they can reproduce. Essentially, organisms of the same species pass their genes to their offspring during reproduction. With increasing environmental changes, different populations have to adapt to increase their chances of survival. A population refers to organisms of the same species living at the same time. Such organisms share the same genetic material, which make them adaptable to the prevailing environmental conditions. Variations, on the other hand,refer to genetic changes that parents pass to their offspring. Variations are common in different population as well as within organisms from different bio-geographical locations(Haviland et al, 2012).

The Four Forces of Evolution

            In essence, the four forces of evolution are “mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection”(Haviland et al, 2012).


Mutation is a randomized change in heritable chromosomes and genes, which could occur due to substitutions, deletions, or additions nitrogen bases in DNA sequences. Mutations could be advantageous or catastrophic to the involved species.

Gene Flow

On the other hand, gene flow refers to exchange of genetic materialsbetween two populations. Fundamentally, gene flow decreases variations between two populations.

Genetic Drift

At the same time, genetic drift is the unsystematic variation in allele frequency from one generation to the other, which is more common in small populations.

Natural Selection

Lastly, natural selection refers to the process of giving some organisms a greater chance of reproduction and survival. Consequently, the advantageous features are passed on at a higher frequency in order to reduce chances of extinction.

Isolation and Speciation

Fundamentally, some genes are essential for adapting to certain environmental conditions. Isolation refers to the most favorable genes in a given population that ensure survival. Differences in geographical locations lead to separation of populations into smaller populations as organisms cannot interbreed. At the same time, isolation leads to specialization as a small population adapts to a given geographical region for its survival (Haviland et al, 2012).


Evolution is evident in all populations and species as organisms try to adapt to changes in environment. Evolution ensures that despite changes in ecosystems, organisms do not become extinct as they adopt the most favorable genes for their survival. Consequently, evolution is essential for any species irrespective of its bio-geographical location.


















Haviland, W., Prins, H., Walrath, D., &McBride, B. (2012).The Essence of Anthropology (3rdEdition     ). New York: Cengage Learning.


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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:15

Nursing Transition





Nursing Transition





My Models of Transition in Nursing

As noted by Blais and Hayes (2011), the Bridges Model has three phases (ending, neutral zone, and new beginnings) while Spencer and Adams model has seven phases (loss of focus, minimization of the impact, the pit, parting with the past, test of limits, search of meaning, and integration). From these models, I see myself in the new beginnings phases from the Bridges Model and the integration phase in the Spencer and Adams model. I have learnt the required changes in nursing profession and I am putting them in practice. I value patients’ view when providing care and also value communication and cooperation with my colleagues.

My Roles in the Nursing Profession

            I assume several roles including acting as a student, a part time community nurse, and an active family member. From this, I get the satisfaction of being committed in what I do. I am contended when I see everything go as planned. However, there are times in which I am unable to manage my time effectively and thus fail in some of my roles resulting to role strain. I am stressed when I cannot manage to learn all that is required in my role transition as a nurse. I manage my role stress through effective time planning. I have ‘a to do list’ with all the tasks that I should complete in a day. I also spent a lot of time researching in order to become a better nurse who is adequately skilled and informed.  

Comparison of the Family Nurse Practitioner and Family Practice Medical Doctor

A family nurse practitioner should learn how to handle problems presented by both the patient and his family members. He should be able to educate the family members on how to take care of their sick one. A primary care physician in a family practice is a practitioner who has completed a board-certified specialty and is usually set in an outpatient setting. The primary care physician provides preventive care to people with the same medical problems (Weiss&Tappen, 2014).  


Blais, K., & Hayes, J. S. (2011).Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives (6th Ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.

Weiss, S. A., &Tappen, R. M. (2014).Essentials of nursing leadership and management.  Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.



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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:15

Facts in Timothy McVeigh case



Project title: Facts in Timothy McVeigh case










On April 19 1995, one of the famous trials in the American history commenced. This involved the trial of Timothy McVeigh who was considered to be one of the biggest American terrorists. This was after he was taken in as a suspect in the one of the most deadliest attacks prior to the 9/11th one. The attack orchestrated by McVeigh is commonly referred to as the Oklahoma City bombing in which there were 168 casualties and over 600 injuries. To date it remains to be one of the most significant act which involved terrorism orchestrated by an American citizen.

Childhood and growth

Born in the year 1968, McVeigh was the only son in a family of three children. During his early schooling, he faced a lot of bullying that led to his seeking refuge in fantasy that was seeking refuge in taking revenge against his bullies. In the perspective of his fantasy, the government of the United States was the ultimate bully. Known to be a withdrawn in his adolescent years, he only had one girlfriend and described his character to journalists that he had no idea on how to impress girls. He was later to make a mark when he hacked into the government systems under the handle “the wanderer”.

At the age of 20 years, McVeigh graduated from the army and had great interest in firearms where he read much about sniper tactics and explosives. He was to be one of the recognized top scoring gunners and in such way became recognized by the US military in this regard.



His arrest

McVeigh was at first arrest for driving without plates and being in procession of unlicensed firearm. At the time of arrest ea was wearing a t-shirt with a photo of Abraham Lincoln and labeled “thus always to tyrants”. It was while in jail that he was identified as one of the most wanted criminals by the state owing to the identification documents after the bomb attack.

Facts of the trial

In a case that was led by the prosecutor  Hartzler’s, he described the events of the day of the bombing in the words “ the truck was there also to impose the will of Timothy McVeigh on the rest of America in the hopes  of seeing blood flow in the streets of America.” He further quoted the statement on the t-shirt worn by the suspect on the day of the bombing that read, “The tree of Liberty must be refreshed from time to time with blood of patriots and tyrants.”  This was further enhanced by the evidence of the suspects close friend Lori frontier. In her submission, she stated that McVeigh had at one time constructed a model of a truck bomb using cans of soup. Further to this, she admitted to having laminated a fake driver’s license for the suspect that was in the name of Robert King McVeigh. This was the license that the suspect used to hire the track that was used in the attack.

The state presented a total of 137 witnesses most of whom were direct victims of the attack. However, the most notable fact of the case was the fallout of the suspect and the lawyer. While McVeigh suspected his lawyer of leaking a story of his confession to the “Dallas Morning news”, his lawyer in his book “Others unknown: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing Conspiracy” depicted an image where the lawyer showed the suspect as not being in any way less to blame for the event.


















Michel, Lou; Herbeck, Dan (2002). American Terrorist: Timothy McVeigh & the Tragedy at Oklahoma City. HarperCollins. p. 371. ISBN 0-06-039407-2.

Linder, Douglas O. ( 2006). "The Oklahoma City Bombing & The Trial of Timothy McVeigh,", online posting, University of Missouri–Kansas City, Law School faculty projects, People in the News: Timothy McVeigh: The Path to Death Row, transcript of program broadcast on CNN, June 9, 2001,


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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:15

Title: Technology in the valet industry



Title: Technology in the valet industry







With the current trends, valet parking is becoming a way of life. This is most prevalent in wealthy suburban in some luxurious establishments including hotels, restaurants, hospitals and shopping malls. With the growing trend, the need for incorporating technology becomes imperative. Traditionally, the visitor upon arrival hands over the car to a valet to park and as well gets it back from the parking when picking. The valet is rewarded by receiving a tip for the service offered.

Benefits in using the service

With the services tailored to offer convenience to the customers, the use of modern technology is a great way to ensure more convenience. This can be done by ensuring that the valet employees are notified on the time of arrival or exit of a visitor. As such they are able to receive the car or have it delivered hence making the visitor’s convenience much better. Despite the advantage of having the valet ready and waiting at both instances, the hassle of  walking to the car park and struggling with the limited parking space, the customer also get the convenience of using the technology o make payments without the need for carrying around loose cash.

Technological developments required I the industry

To ensure absolute convenience, technological advancements required for valet parking includes among other an easy and interactive payment service. This should be created with among other aspects the rate of payment and the basis on which the charges are made. An interactive system through which the visitors can alert the valet employees upon arrival and at the time of leaving is also essential.  It is through such modalities that guest convenience is more enhanced and giving the visitors ease at the time of the visit.


Levine, Jay (8 April 2010). "Businesses Use Loading Zones For Private Parking". CBS 2 Chicago. Retrieved 28 May 2014.

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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:14

Presentation Encouraging Ethical Reflection





Presentation Encouraging Ethical Reflection



When people here of the subject science, mostly scientific experiments come into mind. In scientific experiments, researchers are out to come up with solutions to certain problems faced in the society. However, issues arise when researchers are expected to use human subjects in their experiments. A good example is the case in which scientists are expected to use human subjects in coming up with cure to chronic illnesses. Moral awareness is required when it is found out that scientists are coercing people to participate in scientific research or take advantage of the less fortunate in the society to bear the burden of the study but benefit the privileged.

There are three major principles that act as virtues in guiding scientific research involving human subjects in order to ensure that the research participants are treated fairly. These three principles are respect for persons, justice, and beneficence. Beneficence requires that research participants are not harmed while the benefit goes to other people (Tappen, 2011).  This principle also calls for the researcher to ensure that the benefits accrued surpass the involved costs even when the benefits go to future generations. The principle of respect for individuals requires that research participants are seen as autonomous and those with low autonomy offered protection. A person can only be obstructed from achieving his goals if they are injurious to others. As noted by Farrell (2005), a person should also be provided with the necessary information that will help him achieve his goals. Justice as a principle is concerned with who to bear the research burden and who to enjoy the benefits. Injustice arises when a person is exposed to undue burdens or is denied benefits he is entitled to. The major formulations of distributing benefits and burdens include; to each person equally, based on the need of an individual, based on individual effort, based on societal contribution, and based on merit (Schaller, 2008). Considering these principles, a scientist will consider the perspective of others before embarking on a research. He will only do what is right and what he can allow others to do on him.

This way, it becomes clear that some things are right and others wrong based on their consequences. Moral acts will be the ones that ensure that the vulnerable in the society are not taken advantage of by engaging in research that they will not benefit from (Schreck, 2008). It will only be right that the research burden is experienced by the people who will benefit from the results. Further, it is right if the research participants are allowed to participate in the research willingly with informed consent attained. Thoughtful moral decisions are made when a scientist considers the effect of his actions. He should inform the research participants of the procedures involved in the research so that they will make informed decisions to participate. Scientists should also practice the virtue of humility by all others as well as themselves to criticize their decisions before they engage in the actions. This way, they will engage in right and moral actions. A scientist practicing humility will act to his limits to avoid messing up in things that are beyond his capability (Timpe& Boyd, 2014).    

            I have several personal values and virtues that mold me to be who I am. My major virtues are chastity, humility, charity, kindness, temperance, diligence, and patience. I wish to train other people in the classroom to have the same virtues that will help them respect others and ensure that they do not take actions that harm others. As a future educational leader, is expect to have the same virtues and help the people I instruct to be fair in their actions. I expect the people I train to be mindful of the welfare of others and the consequences their actions have.  




Farrell, A. (2005). Ethical research with children. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.

Schaller, B. R. (2008). Understanding bioethics and the law: The promises and perils of the brave new world of biotechnology. Westport, Conn: Praeger.

Schreck, P. (2008). The business case for corporate social responsibility: Understanding and measuring economic impacts of corporate social performance. Heidelberg: Physica-Verl.

Tappen, R. M. (2011). Advanced nursing research: From theory to practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Timpe, K., & Boyd, C. A. (2014).Virtues and their vices. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:14

Evaluation of product harm crisis




Evaluation of product harm crisis







In modern times, there is a wide of products that are made available to cater for varying needs. It is in this regard that manufacturers have created a range of compositions to ensure that the consumer requirements are met accordingly.  This has resulted in cases where products made fail to fulfill the required consumer requirements (Carley, K.M. and Z. Lin, Z. 1995). Owing to the fact that individuals are bound to make mistakes, the production team is not always guaranteed to meet the required consumer requirements.

Causes of product harm crisis

 It is not always that he manufacturer is aware of the reaction of the consumer towards a given product. It is in this regard that health reactions alongside other events may occur within certain categories of consumers. While this may occur as a result of irresponsibility of the manufacturer or a reaction to certain composition components, it remains within the responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that whatever products are made available are within the set legal frameworks protecting the consumer requirements (Mowen, J.C. and Ellis, H.W.1981).  Ranging from consumer dissatisfaction to effects o overall use of the product in question, manufacturer carries the responsibility to ensure that products provided are up to the terms of adequate consumer satisfaction.

Dealing with the effects of the crisis

When product harm occurs, it is important that the production company takes responsibility and looks for adequate remedy for the crisis. This includes among other options making a recall for the product in question alongside ensuring that the health effects resulting from the defects f the products are catered for. In certain instances compensation for losses occurring as a result of the deficiency is also considered.

In most instances, it is the consumers who raise alarm on the effects of a certain product. In such instances, the marketing or the production team undertakes a research to ascertain the validity of the claims and it is in such way that ascertain the viable compensation options (Siomkos, G.J.,  1989). Such compensation is based on the terms of the extent of the injuries or losses that can be directly or indirectly attributed to the product.

Of the most common methods used by manufacturers to deal with such crisis includes recall of the products (Carley, K.M. and Z. Lin, Z. 1995). This is upon identification of the underlying problem where the manufacturer undertakes to rectify the product composition. While this may be instituted by the company, various agencies acting on behalf of the consumer can also instigate the process. This may be followed by compensation procedures either by orders from courts or from agreements made by the company and the consumers depending on the extent of the injuries suffered.

Upon identification of a harmful product by the manufacturer, there is need for provision of adequate information to the consumer. This is essential in averting further harm by the product to the consumers. This should be done through use of available media that will reach all consumers where available distribution models are used to make a recall of the product in question. As such, distributor of the products in crisis act as important agencies where all of the harmful products can be easily collected for disposal or rectification by the manufacturer (Mowen, J.C. and Ellis, H.W.1981).


Effects of product harm crisis

The range of effects arising from product harm crisis range widely. In a great way, the company’s reputation is widely affected as consumers shy away from the product (Dawar, N. and Pillutla, M. 2000). This arises from the aspect of the consumers rejecting the product from injuries and other shortcomings. This is normally caused by defects that may have arisen from the production process or other factors within the production process.

The overall cost of the product as such exceeds above the sales and in such way resulting to downfall of the sales. This may lead to the fall of the production process that owing to lack of profitability due to reduced sales. The process of recalling such products may also affect the costs of the production in regard to added costs. Some regulations also take into consideration the overall consumer effect where the injuries afflicted may lead to banning of the product from the market (Mowen, J.C. and Ellis, H.W.1981). However, this is done where the regulating organization ns and other consumer’s interested bodies provide adequate information that shows the defectiveness of the product as well as the impact on the interest of the consumer.

Indentifying the crisis

In the process of production, it is almost impossible to ascertain a crisis. It is after the consumers partake of the product that any impending crisis may be identified. It is for this reason that manufacturers require to have adequate contacts that will enable them get adequate customer response (Carley, K.M. and Z. Lin, Z. 1995).  It is through such mechanisms that manufacturers get to know of the reaction of the consumers after the products has been put into use. This situation can be averted if the manufacturing company has in place adequate means to ensure that the product is adequately tested.

Managing the problem

Depending on the type of product such should be the modality used to manage the crisis. This includes among others identification of the cause to the problem and in such way, it is possible to ascertain where the root cause of the problem. This may include among others identification of the product composition as well as seeking signs of negligence on the part of the production team that may lead to development of the problem at hand. (Dawar, N. and Pillutla, M. 2000) Once the cause has been indentified, the consumer fraternity need to be adequately informed as well as creation of ideal ways to correct the problem. This includes among other recalling the product and compensation of the consumers. It is upon such modalities that consumer confidence is restored and thereby ensuring that when re-introduced, the product will gain its niche in the market.

It is important or the manufacturing company to always ensure there is an interactive platform where consumer views are received (Siomkos, G.J.,  1989). It is through such platform that the reaction of the product can be easily ascertained and in such way ensuring that plans and modalities are put in place to cater for consumer needs.


When product harm crisis occurs, it always leads to the deep financial undertaking by the manufacturing company. The consumers normally lose confidence in the product and in such way reducing the overall company sales (Dawar, N. and Pillutla, M. 2000). In such ways, it remains upon the manufacturer to create modalities that will restore consumer confidence and in such way assure of its continuity in the market. The modalities employed in such way will include among others ensuring the consumers are adequately compensated as well as ensuring the product is reintroduced in a way that ensures consumer satisfaction.


















Carley, K.M. and Z. Lin, Z. (1995). Organizational designs suited to high performance under stress. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 25 (2), pp.221–230.

Dawar, N. and Pillutla, M. (2000). The impact of product-harm crises on brand equity: The moderating role of consumer expectations. Journal of Marketing Research, XXXV, 215-226.

Mowen, J.C. and Ellis, H.W.( 1981), “The Product Defect: Management and ConsumerImplications”, in Enis, B. and Roering, K. (Eds), Review of Marketing, American Marketing Association, Chicago, IL, , pp. 158-72.

Siomkos, G.J. (1989), “An Integrated Perspective on Managing Product-harm-caused Crises: The ACOE Model”, unpublished PhD dissertation, New York University.

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Narrative on a Research Essay: Should Felons be allowed to Vote?







It is notable that all citizens in a country should enjoy similar rights. Such rights include the right to vote among others. However, not all people enjoy a right to vote. A good example is the case of minors who are considered unable to make informed decisions and thus unable to decide on their best political leaders. Another category of people who should not be allowed to vote are felons. A felon is a person who is convicted by the court of law for committing a major crime that is mostly punishable imprisonment exceeding one year or by death. Since a felon is supposed to stay in jail for long or even be punished by death such that he will never get out of jail alive, it is arguable that there is no need of such a person to vote. This is because he is not in need of the services offered by the political leaders that he elects through his vote. Additionally, once subjected to death penalty, a felon might not be voting to serve the interests of the majority citizens since he has no interest in the political proceedings of the country. This is an indication that felons should not be allowed to vote.

What I Already Know and What I Need to Learn

Since a felony is a serious crime in the US, a person who commits it (a felon) should be sentenced to death or long-term sentence. Felonies are crimes such as murder, robbery with violence, arson, burglary, and rape among others. People in prisons and especially those who have committed serious atrocities to the society have limited rights. This is based on the conditions set as they serve their sentences. Considering the limitations in rights, a popular debate of whether felons should be given an opportunity to vote has emerged. There are people who argue that felons should be allowed to vote while others argue that felons should not be allowed to vote.The major argument of allowing felons to vote is to avoid punishing them twice for the same crime. On the other hand, there are arguments that felons should not be allowed to vote. This is mainly for felons who are still serving their sentences since it is expected that ex-felons have been helped to transform and thus should be allowed to vote as they can make wise decisions. The major proponents of not allowing felons to vote base their argument on the basis of irrational or uniformed decisions felons make. This is because it is argued that felons get into prison as a result of poor decision making. They make mistakes that lead them into committing serious crimes landing them into prison. If allowed to vote, such felons will likely make poor decision in choosing the political leaders and would thus not have served the interests and needs of the free citizens.  This is an indication that those who argue that felons should not be allowed to vote are worried of the unwise decisions the felons make. This is because felons are equated to minors or insane people as a result of their poor judgment and thus should not be trusted with a vote. Failing to allow felons to vote can also be explained by the fact that most of them are sentenced to death penalty and thus are not in need of political leadership in a country. It does not matter the type of political leadership and leaders a country has for felons who will be persecuted for the committed crimes. Their place is in prison until their death and thus should be restricted from voting because it does not matter whether they vote or not (Green, 2014). 


Even though it is more logical that felons are not allowed to vote because they are convicted for serious crimes and thus cannot be trusted with votes, it is notable that there are people who fight for their voting rights. Such people base their argument on the basis that felons have been punished for their crimes and thus should not be punished for the same crime twice. Once felons have been sentenced to prison, this is enough punishment for the committed crime. Since they have been deprived of their freedom to run freely in the community as they serve their sentence, they should not be deprived of their right to vote as well. This will be double punishment for the same crime and this is unfair. Felons should thus be sentenced to prison but given a chance to vote so that they elect leaders who will make the society a better place to live in and maybe prevent future crimes. This is based on the fact that some felons might be pushed into committing crimes such as robbery with violence as a result of poverty due the conditions they live. This suggests that such felons are able to transform the living conditions in the societies they belong to by being allowed to vote thus selecting political leaders who mind their welfare. The same people argue that felons who are serving their prison sentence are doing so as they undertake rehabilitation services in order to change. They are trained to change for the better and thus are able to make rational and wise decisions such as voting. This mostly goes for the felons who are sentenced to several-year imprisonment since they will soon be free and thus require participating in electing political leaders who will represent their needs in the future. The same people consider the rights of ex-felons who are denied the right to vote in several states. They argue that ex-felons have already served their sentences and thus should not be denied the right to vote. They have already paid for their crime and should be treated as normal people enjoying the rights other people enjoy (Gonchar, 2014). Since they have served the sentences and are now out of prison, they should be given the chance to elect political leaders who will represent their interests just like other citizens.  

Writing and Research Plan

The research paper will be arranged in five major chapters. The first chapter will start by introducing the topic of study so that readers are aware of what the paper is all about. This will be followed by statement of the problem so that the researcher shows the reason the topic is of interest and needs to be studied. The objectives of the study, justification, and limitations of the study will also be highlighted. The second chapter will deal with literature review of earlier studies in the topic but related to the identified objectives. The third chapter will include the research methodology, identifying the population, the sample, method of data collection and analysis. Chapter four will analyze the collected data. Chapter five will make the conclusion, recommendation, and summarize the analyzed data.


Once in prison, felons should not be allowed to vote because they are likely to make wrong decisions. This is different for ex-felons who have already served their sentence and thus is apparently unfair to punish them two times for the same crime. This is because felons have paid for their crimes to the society by serving their sentences, thus they do not owe any debt to the society.




Gonchar, M. (2014). Should felons be allowed to vote after they have served their time? The New York Times.Retrieved from

Green, M. (2014). Should felons have the right to vote?Retrieved from





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