Items filtered by date: December 2021

Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:21

Examination of Cosi Fan Tutte by Mozart


Examination of Cosi Fan Tutte by Mozart

Cosi fan tutte is an Italian soap opera written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. It was initially performance in January 26 1790 at the Wiener Burgtheater in Vienna, Austria.  Lorenzo Da Ponte is its writer, who also wrote Don Giovanni and Le nozze di Figaro. The English translation of cosi fan tutte is ‘thus does all women; however, the popular translation is that ‘women are like that’. In the play, the main theme surround two men swapping their fiancées’ while hopping that there fiancées will remain faithful. The fiancées end up failing the other new lovers, thus the conclusion ‘women are just like that’.The opera is characterized by elaborate wigs, beauty spots, laughter, and superb singing among others elements. These elements make the opera so fascinating. This essay entails examining and discussing the dramatic values of cosi fan tutte. It also to include the key terms of music that apply.

Intrigue part of the opera revolves around the bet between Alfonso, Gugleilmo and Ferrando. The play begins with the bass and tenor playing Guglielmo and Ferrando respectively, who are the young competing soldiers of the 18the century. The first scene begins when Don Alfonso, their colleague, hears the two soldiers boasting about how their girlfriends are faithful. Dorabella is Ferrando’s girlfriend, while Fiordiligi is Guglielmo’s girlfriend. Don Alfonso is an old bachelor who happens to be very cynical. Thus, he places a bet against the young soldiers so that they can test the fidelity of their fiancées. This will be done by the young soldiers claiming to have left for war, and eventually return in disguise, in the form of exotic Albanians. Upon returning, each will try to seduce the other’s fiancée. In efforts for Alfonso’s bet to succeed, he is assisted by a Despina, a maid, to aid in the downfall of her maid; however, Despina does so unconscious about the bet. At the end, when the women learn about the bet and the plot, they become furious as they reunited with their lovers.

It is imperative to evaluate the strange lightheartedness behind cosi fan tutte, the amoral and severe in its setting, and the underplays. The opera is complex but well organized and eccentric. The play is gives references and echoes and is sometimes problematic to unlock. This is because it focuses acceptable limits, the normal incidences of love, and issues of life in general. Cosi fan tutte is a kind of collaboration done is a dynamic and symmetrical structure as revealed in the plot. Thus, there is an echoic quality of the opera coupled with sensational music. More so, the composition is impeccable and there is no imposition of any outside source.

In the first act, it is evident that Mozart presents the individuals in pairs in order to display how the pair thinks, or addresses a certain situations. The characters act or sing together and there is imitation of the individuals and repetition of the lines. Through repetition, Mozart intended to make the audience have a feeling that they are in a closed environment characterized by imitation, parody, and melody, which cannot be easily separated. This is eminently indicated in the sextet that draws a miniplay featuring Alfonso and Despina, then the two young soldiers, and later their fiancées, all who comment on one point, and that guarantees Despina to make a comment too. It is apparent that the whole number, the basically C major, which is the major key in cosi fan tutte, reveals a maze expostulation and advance, echo, and statement, which challenges all the opera by Mozart. It merely erodes the gravity and stability that had been established in the initial stages of the play.

In the opera, the characters have internalized characters that are full of implicit, are politically and morally limited. Overture is evident and this is displayed perfectly in less than four minutes. Even though the overture was written after Mozart had written the main body of the opera, it pushes the orchestra players to their extreme limits. It is obvious that there is the orchestra has consonance and is uniquely alive and that displays that the 18th century opera were very competitive. Mozart's melodies are enormously faithful to character and situation that contain a charm, a sparkle, a technical perfection of form, an expressive virtuosity, and an utter spontaneity (Fisher 20).

All through the play, the tone evident by most characters is that women are not considered serious people. Thus, Alfonso is able to win the bet. This is because he understands them to be deceitful and this is evidently proven when the young soldiers realize that their fiancées are weak as they fall in love with strangers. More so, Despina, who happens to perform subordinate jobs for the two sisters plays a role in advising when making decisions about the cheating their boyfriends. Without knowing the bet between the old soldier and the young soldiers, Despina becomes Alfonso’s accomplice. Thus, Mozart names the opera cosi fan tutte. More so, the major theme surrounds sex and love is eminent in the opera, just like all other operas. Thus, sexual awakening is the major theme of the opera with the climax of the opera being when Fiordiligi gives gets seduced and is not willing to give up her new lover for the old partner.

The opera appears to be kind of a present day opera due to the casualness of the evil. After the evils are committed, reconciliation is a primary element that is required so that the victims can proceed with their ordinary life. Love and sex are important elements of the opera, but women are the major victims who are mostly affected by the unexpected outcome of events. The music played highlights the lows and high of events during the play. The music serves its purpose. Cosi fan tutte is success full opera of the 18th century, even though traditionally produced; it can beat the standards of some present day operas in respect to music, and the artistic elements.



Works cited

Fisher, Burton D. Mozart's Cosi Fan Tutte. Miami: Opera Journeys Publishing, 2004. Print.



Published in Uncategorised
Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:20

Service Marketing





Service Marketing



Service marketing is not done in the same way as marketing of tangible goods. This is because while goods are tangible and easy in value determination, services are intangible and also inseparable from the provider of them. This implies that effective service marketing depends highly on the manner in which the service provider delivers the services. Service organizations are required to build and maintain positive relationships with all their customers in efforts to ensure that the customers are satisfied with the provided services through customer relationship management. Customer relationship management model helps in managing the types of interaction between the company and its current as well as future customers. The model allows use of technology to organize, market, automate, ensure effective customer service, offer technical support, and synchronize sales. This way, the organization is able to understand the current customer base and thus be able to retain it through effective customer experience. The model also makes it easy for the organization to attract new customers, increase profitability, win new contracts, and reduce customer management costs.

Marketing of Services

            The marketing of services is based on their five major features. These are non-ownership, perishability, inseparably, intangibility, and variability. The issue of perishability is based on the fact that services unlike most other physical products cannot be stored. The services are produced the moment they are consumed. Perishability is also based on the fact that a customer cannot touch, smell, or see the products he chooses as he does for other physical goods. What the customer does is to base his assessment on past experience, location of the service provider, and word of mouth from other customers. This explains the intangible nature of products that raises issues for customers and suppliers (Bhattacharjee, 2006).

In addition, the customers only purchase the skills of the suppliers, the service providers. This leads to difficulty for suppliers to ensure consistent quality of service since one is unable to duplicate the same provided service to the next customer leading to service variability. Even though offered by the same service provider, it is possible to note some significant differences in the services offered. Similarly, different service providers in the same organization offer varied services to customers even when requested for the same services (Buttle, 2009).  

            Inseparability is another key distinguishing characteristics of services. It is notable that the service provision of the provider cannot be separated from the service consumption and the customer. Non-ownership is the last major characteristic of a service. Unlike the case of physical product, the consumer does not make the purchase of services to secure ownership of the product. The customer only pays for access or use of the purchased service (Hoffman& Bateson, 2009).

In simple terms, service marketing involved marketing of intangible products. With the major features of services, the service providers should be careful in their marketing to ensure increased sales and profitability. The fact that a service production cannot be repeated exactly by the same service provider calls for effective marketing to ensure that a service producing firm is profitable in the business. Since it is not possible to seen services before making a choice, marketing is through the word of mouth for new customers and experience for old customers (Mudie&Cottam, 2012). The service producing firm should thus offer quality services that will ensure referrals.

Service Promotion

With intangibility of services, it is not possible to resale the products as is the case for physical goods. Marketing and promotion of services is thus a challenging but very important task. Service producing firms should consider a number of factors to ensure effective marketing of their services. To start with, the service provider should look for a key differentiator. Service consumers look for a key differentiators in the services offered; an aspect that will attract them to the same service provider again. Service differentiation is required even in marketing of products. With so many firms providing the same products (physical goods), customers are attracted to one firm over the other as a result of the quality and differentiation of the service(Buttle, 2009). Even when asking for a tangible product, a consumer will look the best services; he will consider how the tangible product is offered to him, the kind of salesperson he interacts with, the type of communication used, and the way the product is packed/ wrapped as well as how urgent he is served.

Relationships are also important in service marketing. Since the purchased product is intangible, the decision of the customers to make the purchase will depend on the extent to which the service provider is trustworthy. A service provider will ensure trusted relationship with the customer through fulfilling promises and listening to the customer. The service provider should listen to the customer needs and fulfill them. He should ensure that he offers quality services thus building a strong and lasting relationship with the clients(Buttle, 2009). This way, the service provider is ensured of repeated sales and positive word of mouth from others.

Customer retention is also a major factor in service marketing. The business world today is in an era in which different service providers offering the same services are fighting for a limited pool of customers. It is also notable that several firms offering the same services are located in the same locality. For instance, it is possible for a customer to find a chain of salons in the same street though belonging to different people. Customer retention in this case is more important than attracting a new base of clients. With services being generated at the same time they are consumed, the customer should be actively involved by taking into consideration his feedback and requirement. The service provider should ensure that he clearly understands the needs of the customers and serves them. This way, he will ensure increased satisfaction leading to high customer retention, which is very beneficial in fighting competition (Bhattacharjee, 2006).

It is easy to replicate service offering calling for effective promotion so that one’s service is differentiated in the mind of the customer. Different service providers such as banks, airlines, and insurance companies offer the same services. Customers in this will be attracted to one bank over the other based on the quality of the services offered. Investing in advertising is also very important as the firms try to convince customers of uniqueness of their services(Hoffman& Bateson, 2009). This is meant to retain old and attract new customers.

Pricing of Services

            Pricing of services is not easy as pricing of tangible products. Pricing of physical goods involves considering the used raw materials and other direct costs. For the case of services, pricing incorporates labor costs and overhead costs. When pricing the cost of food in a restaurant for instance, the accountant does only consider the cost of food offered but also the price of the environment provided. The final price of the service will also include the mark up for adequate profit margin that will keep the business running(Mudie&Cottam, 2012).

The first step in pricing of services is finding what the service customers value, adjusting the service to incorporate that value, and then determining the price of the offered value. This way, pricing of the services is intrinsically linked to the positioning strategy. The service provider should determine for instance if customers are interested in convenience over price. Pricing based on value not only involves understanding what customer values but also what can be included in the services to ensure differentiation from competitors(Buttle, 2009). This is because it is possible for a service provider to price his services at a higher value if they are different in quality from those of the competitors.

The service provider should also differentiate the price point and his value proposition. He should be able to demonstrate the offered value to the customer. If the customer is unable to see the offered value and thus bargains for a lower price, the service provider should play a trump card. This is based on the fact that it is possible for customers to have the intended lower price but without high value aspects of the provided service. This way, the service provider will make the sale but after removing the valuable features (Bhattacharjee, 2006). 

Changes of pricing of services depend on the position the service is in the product life-cycle. For instance, if the service provider is the market leader using skim pricing and realizes that he is being overtaken by competitors in terms of value, he should revise both the price and the services to match with or be better than those of the competitors. If new entrants enter the market with low prices, a service provider should adopt a penetration pricing strategy in order to outdo them and maybe remove them from the market(Hoffman& Bateson, 2009).

Distribution of Services

One of the major features of services is inseparability in that they are offered in the presence of the providers. Additionally, service delivery happens at the same time as its production and thus cannot be transported or stored. This implies that distribution of services is based on the location of the service provider. Service providers should thus consider the place in which they need the service to be offered(Mudie&Cottam, 2012). For instance, a salon will be better situated in a busy upscale market when compared to the outskirts of a city. On the other hand, a holiday resort will be better located in the countryside, far from the hassles, noise, and pollution of the city.

The distribution type used provides the required link between service producers and their customers all over the globe. The efficiency of the distribution sector should ensure that consumers have a wide variety of services to choose from and at competitive prices. Distribution of services can be carried by intermediaries with the intermediaries co-producing the required services but maintaining quality and important features. This way, it becomes easy to distribute services effectively by ensuring that they are offered at convenient places for the customers. Customers are able to get the required services from different locations rather than incurring transport costs travelling to the service principal providers (Bhattacharjee, 2006).



Gaps Model of Service Quality

Service firms should insist on customer-oriented philosophies that help in realizing quality management approaches. Managers in service firms should be convincing that their services are customer-focused and that they are continuously improving on performance. Service firms operate under resource and financial constraints like other firms. It is therefore important that customer expectations and needs are understood and measured based on the perspective of the customers so that any service quality gaps are identified and resolved. Managers should come up with cost effective strategies to close service quality gaps and prioritize on the gaps to major on(Buttle, 2009).

Using SERVQUAL model, there are seven gaps in the service industry that should be dealt with. Gap 1 (customer’s expectations vs. management perceptions) results from inadequate marketing research, ineffective upward communication and so many management layers. Gap 2 (management perceptions vs. service specifications) result from inadequate service quality commitment, unfeasibility perception, absence of goal setting, and inadequate of standardization of tasks. Gap 3 (service specifications vs. service delivery) result from role conflict and ambiguity, poor fitting of employees to jobs and technology to jobs, ineffective supervisory control systems, and lack of teamwork(Mudie&Cottam, 2012).

Gap 4 (service delivery vs. external communication) results from inadequate horizontal communication. Gap 5 (discrepancy between the expectations of the customers and perception of what is delivered) results from influences of the customers and the shortfalls of the service provider. Gap 6 is the discrepancy between the expectations of the customers and the perceptions of the employees resulting from different understanding of the expectations of the customers by front-line employees.Lastly, Gap 7 is the discrepancy between the perceptions of the employees and the perceptions of the management resulting from different understanding of the expectations of the customers by managers(Hoffman& Bateson, 2009).

The measurement of the quality of services should incorporate the expectations of the service customers as well as the perceptions of the service. This means that the expectations and the perceptions should align. The perception of consumers in terms of service quality is based on five generic dimensions namely tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. Tangibles used in measuring service perception involved physical facilities, appearance of the personnel, and equipment. Reliability refers to the ability of the service provider to provide the promised service accurately and dependably.  Responsiveness implies to the willingness of the service providers to respond to customer questions and provision of prompt service. Assurance includes competence, security, courtesy, and credibility. Empathy includes understanding the customers and effective communication with then customers(Mudie&Cottam, 2012).


            Even though services are different from physical goods, entering into the service industry does not mean that the firm is entitled to losses. Service providers should implement effective marketing strategies that will ensure that their services are considered better than those of the competitors. They should understand the major features of services that make them different from physical goods and know how to ensure that they consider those features in marketing. The pricing, distribution, and promotion strategies used in marketing services should be effective so that a service providing firm not only retains the current customers but attracts new ones as well. Service providers should also understand the seven gaps used in measuring service quality and understand how to address them so that customer perceptions match with their expectations. Lastly, service providers should understand the five generic dimensions used in measuring quality of services and know how to maximize on them to have them attract and interest customers. They should know how to use the generic dimensions to their favor. 




Bhattacharjee, C. (2006). Services marketing: Concepts, planning and implementation. New Delhi: Excel Books.

Buttle, A. (2009). Customer Relationship Management: Concepts and Technologies, 2nd Ed. New York: Routledge.

Hoffman, K. D., & Bateson, J. E. G. (2009).Services marketing: Concepts, strategies & cases. s.l.: Cengage Learning Services.

Mudie, P., &Cottam, A. (2012).Management and Marketing of Services, 2nd Ed. London: CRC Press.



Published in Uncategorised
Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:20

Emotional Intelligence






Emotional Intelligence

In terms of happiness and life success, there is need of emotional intelligence just as intellectual ability is of importance. It is through emotional intelligence that people are able to create stronger relationships, achieve career and personal goals, and succeed at work. It is therefore important for a person to understand what emotional intelligence is all about and how to boost it. Emotional intelligence is defined as the person’s ability to identify, understand, use, and manage emotion in a manner that will help in relieving stress, communicating effectively, empathizing with others, overcoming challenges, and defusing conflict (Bradberry& Greaves, 2009). Through emotional intelligence, a person’s behavior is regulated as well as the way a person interacts with others. This is the reason that people with high emotional intelligence are not only able to recognize their own emotional state but as well as the emotional state of the people they interact with. This way, a person engages others in a manner that will draw them to him.

Emotional intelligence has four major attributes namely self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. Self-awareness enables a person recognize his emotions and the manner in which they affect his behavior and thoughts as well as knowing one’s weaknesses and strengths and thus build self-confidence. Through self-management, a person is able to control impulsive behaviors and feelings, manage his emotions in positive ways, follow commitments, take initiative, and adapt to changing environments.  Self-management is defined as the process used to sustain and activate one’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors so as to achieve one’s goals. Through self-management, a person sets goals and mobilizes the required resources and efforts towards reaching the goals. It is argued that self-regulated learners are metacognitive, strategic, and motivated to learn. They have self-control and academic learning skills making learning easier since they have the skill and will to learn. They are able to transform their mental abilities into academic strategies and skills (Woofolk, 2014).

Social awareness is not concerned about the individual. It helps the individual to understand the needs, emotions, and concerns of others. This way, the person is able to pick-up on emotional signs and thus feels comfortable when in social groups. It also helps the individual recognize the power dynamics used in groups and organizations. The attribute of emotional intelligence is relationship management. This is the attribute that helps people maintain healthy relationship, inspire and encourage others, communicate clearly, manage conflict, and work well in groups. Through relationship management, a person relates and interacts well with other people and especially when in teams or socializing(Mersino, 2013).

Emotional intelligence is very important in people’s lives. It is notable that not the smartest individuals are the most fulfilled or most successful in life. There are so many people who are academically brilliant but socially inept or unsuccessful at their work/ personal relationships. This implies that intellectual intelligence is not the only requirement for success in life. While one’s intellectual intelligence will help a person qualify in the best colleges, it is one’s emotional intelligence that will help in managing experienced stress and emotions when preparing for the final exams. As a result, emotional intelligence affects different aspects in a person’s life including one’s performance at work, physical health, mental health, and relationships. Emotional intelligence helps a person understand, express, and control his emotions as well as understand others’ emotions leading to stronger relationships at work and at home (Feldman&Mulle, 2007). 

In terms of performance at work, emotional intelligence helps in navigating the social complexities existing in the workplace. One is able to motivate and lead others and thus excel in his career. This is the reason emotional intelligence is regarded as crucial as technical ability when hiring new employees. Emotional intelligence is also very important in improving or regulating one’s physical health. This is because one is able to manage stress levels and thus be freed from uncontrolled stress that raises blood pressure, increases heart attack and stroke risks, suppresses the immune system, and hastens the aging process. Emotional intelligence also helps in regulating mental health since uncontrolled stress poses one to depression and anxiety (Rothstein& Burke, 2010). One’s ability to control stress levels helps in managing mood swings.      

Since emotional intelligence is very crucial in one’s life, it is important to learn ways of raising one’s emotional intelligence. This is only possible after a person understands and manages his emotions. A person should thus develop key skills that enable him control and manage overwhelming stressing issues. There are different ways of learning the key skills that help in building emotional intelligence. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that the skills can be learned by anyone at any time. However, the difference comes in the way the skills are applied. A person does not only need to learn the key skills but also know how to apply them in his life.

Emotional intelligence is thus built through reduction of stress, staying connected to others and oneself, and remaining focused. This can be done through learning five skills; two skills for managing and controlling overwhelming stress and three skills for improving communication. The skills for controlling stress are ability to reduce stress quickly in different settings and ability to recognize and control emotions from overwhelming oneself. The skills for improving one’s communication are the ability to connect with other people through nonverbal communication, the ability to play and use humor to maintain relationships in challenging situations, and the ability to resolving conflicts with confidence (Benson, 2009).

Rapidly reducing stress immediately after it is experienced is one of the skills of emotional intelligence. A person who is able to calm himself quickly and relieve stress stays focused, balanced, and under control irrespective of the intensity of the stress experienced. The first step in reducing stress is realizing when one is stressed. This is followed by identifying one’s stress response. The people who respond to stress by getting agitated or angry are better to deal with stressing situations when compared to those who become withdrawn and depressed. The last step is discovering stress-busting tactics that work for oneself (Mersino, 2013). One needs to engage different senses in the stressing stimuli so as to find things that are energizing and soothing.

The second skill of improving emotional intelligence is through beating stress experienced in relationships with emotional awareness. This is a skill that enables a person connect effectively with his emotions since he understands the influence stress has on his actions and thoughts. A person needs to understand that denying, distorting or numbing one’s feelings does not eliminate them. Without emotional awareness, a person is unable to understand his motivations as well as unable to communicate effectively with other people (Rothstein& Burke, 2010). Such a person is also easy to become overwhelmed in cases of threatening situations.

A person should also improve his emotional intelligence through improvement of nonverbal communication. Being a good communicator is not only based on verbal skills. The message a person passes across is highly based on the nonverbal signals one sends out. A person holds the attention of other people and ensures strong connection and trust by being aware of and controlling his body language. Similarly, effective communication also includes reading accurately and responding to nonverbal message sent by others. A person should thus ensure that what he says matches with what he feels and thus his body movements. It should be understood that nonverbal communication continues even after a person has stopped speaking. Nonverbal communication is improved through focusing on the other person, paying attention to nonverbal signs, and making eye contact (Bradberry& Greaves, 2009).

The fourth skill of improving emotional intelligence is using humor to handle challenges. It is noted that humor, play, and laughter are great ways of handling life’s difficulties. A good laugh elevates mood, reduces stress, and brings the nervous system to balance. Playful communication helps in taking hardships in stride, smoothening over differences, relaxing and energizing oneself, and becoming more active. Playful time is developed through setting quality playtime, finding enjoyable activities, and playing with young children and animals. Lastly, emotional intelligence is improved through resolving conflicts positively, which are evident in relationships. When conflicts are resolving in healthy rather than threatening ways, they foster freedom, trust, safety, and creativity in relationships. Conflicts are resolved in a positive way by staying focused in the present, choosing one’s arguments wisely, forgiving, and ending conflicts that cannot be resolved (Benson, 2009).

Emotional intelligence is very important in life and thus has to be improved. A person has to look for skills that are required in improving intelligence. This way, a person is able to relate with himself and others in a healthy manner. A person who is in a good relationship with himself and others is able to handle stressing issues with ease.  




Benson, J. D. (2009). The relationship between emotional intelligence and managers’ use of specific directive and supportive behaviors. New York: ProQuest.

Bradberry, T., & Greaves, J. (2009).Emotional intelligence 2.0.San Diego, Calif: TalentSmart.

Feldman, J., &Mulle, K. (2007).Put emotional intelligence to work: EQuip yourself for success. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.

Mersino, A. (2013). Emotional intelligence for project managers: The people skills you need to achieve outstanding results. London: AMACOM Books.

Rothstein, M. G., & Burke, R. J. (2010).Self-Management and leadership development.Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub.

Woofolk, A. (2014). Educational psychology (12th Ed).  London: Pearson Education.



Published in Uncategorised
Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:20

Annotated Bibliography









Annotated Bibliography

            The articles were gotten from databases and mainly cover the topic on innovationsupply chain management at global level. Most of the research articles are written by scholars in various fields. The topic of innovation is an important topic in global business arena because of the fast and vast changes taking place in the global business arena.

Kim,D. Casusgil, S.T.&Calantone,R. J. (2006). Information system innovations and supply chain management: Channel relationships and firm performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 34,(1). doi: 10.1177/0092070305281619

            The scholarly article is very relevant to the subject matter of study as evidenced by the results of the quantitative research. The article reveals that innovation is fast taking place in the supply chain management. This is indicated by the ability to integrate several the supply chain management operations through technological applications.

            Appropriate research methodology and an appropriate representative sample of 184 firms are taken. The research targets the stakeholders in the global supply chain management who are required to embrace innovative approach. The authors are scholars who have command in their respective disciplines and apply high degree of expertise in their research. The only limitation in the research is that the one who is not acquainted with statistical methods of data analysis may find it hard to understand the article. Irrespective of the limitation, the article is suitable and suits the subject of study.

Felix T.S. Chan, H.J. Qi, (2003).An innovative performance measurement method for supply chain management. Supply Chain Management.An International Journal. (8)3, 209 – 223.Doi.

The article highlights the importance role played by global supply chain management in the modern society. Through the article, the changes that have taken place through revolutions over time have been highlighted. There are explanations about the performance measures of the supply chain management and the importance of innovations in the supply chain management.

The article employs qualitative research methodology in its research, and an appropriate sampling method. There researchers are qualified scholars in university of Hong Kong. The article is elaborated in an impeccable way, which makes is suitable article for other scholars and people interested in research methodology. One major limitation in this research paper is the use of some outdated references. Nonetheless, the article is a valuable tool that lays a foundation to better understanding of issues of supply chain management.

Robert E. S., John W. K. Jr, &Niklas M. (1998).An empirical investigation into supply chain management: A perspective on partnerships.International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management. 28(8), 630 – 650.Doi.

This article touches on various critical elements surrounding global supply chain management. Among the issues that the research paper touches on include competitiveness, partnering, channel relationships, and purchasing. That indicates that the authors realize the critical role played by the supply chain management in the global markets. The article has vast information about global supply management, which can be beneficial to both the sellers and buyers in the supply chain.

The researchers employ both qualitative and quantitative research methodology. it is fully referenced and the data is analyzed using statistical tools of data analysis. The results of the research are presented in a credible way with each respective stakeholder being given audience. The presentation is well done and the research paper suites the subject of study. The researchers are scholars from recognized institutions. The major limitation is that the article is outdated considering that it was published in 198, thus the authors need to carryout research about the present innovation issues because the world has undergone transformation overtime. Irrespective of the limitation, the article is very important because it touches the role of various stakeholders in global supply chain management.

Wang, J. (2013). Management innovations for intelligent supply chains. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference.

This is recent book by Wang which touches about the transformation that has occurred in the global supply chain management overtime. The role of technology in the supply chain management is highlighted and how it has enabled the global supply chain management to overcome challenges overtime. The article touches on the importance of business intelligence coupled with productivity applications and importance of communication across the globe.

The author is a celebrated scholar with vast knowledge and is full professor. He has employed both qualitative and quantitative data methodology in his book. The book is represented in a simplified manner with various visual aids to enable the reader understand the content. Nonetheless, the some readers can find it complicated to understand the data mining and analysis process employed by Wang. The book is suitable for people interested with the improvement in the performance of future global supply chain management.


The articles are very relevant to the topic of study. They all reflect that innovation is an important element that needs to be considered by supply chain management intending to overcome the business challenges. The articles differ in respect to their year of publishing, but stress on the importance of innovation in the global supply chain management.


Published in Uncategorised
Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:19

Economic Analysis





Economic Analysis


Summary of the Article

Even though economic development in China has been on the increase in the recent past, this has changed as a result of low consumption rates by the Chinese. The country has for long enjoyed astronomical growth as it is considered the world’s exporting powerhouse. However, the trend is now on the Chinese consumers to drive future expansion of the country’s economy. Overreliance on external markets through massive exportation has decreased with decline on sales from Europe and US. Chinese are considered the stingiest consumers with their household consumption accounting for 35% of the overall economy while that of Americans is at 71% and 57% for the Europeans. Saving for Chinese is high at 38% compared to Americans’ rates of 3.9% and 2.8% for Japanese. Even though the young generation is beginning to buy more, take advantage of credit facilities, and save less, the old trend is only eroding very slowly (Richburg, 2012).

There are complex reasons as to why Chinese are likely to consume less and save more. The major reasons are the country’s tradition and government policies that discourage consumption. This is the reason Chinese aged over 50 years save over 60% of their income because of the economic hardship and political chaos they experienced. The government is now fighting for ways to expand domestic demand, which is a component of GDP. However, this requires that interest rates are freed to rise and the currency allowed to float freely, something that the China’s Communists Party has resisted for long. Since it is argued that China owns the greatest share of the GDP, it is advisable that the government encourages and allows the growth of the private sector. This is because consumers can be encouraged to consume more if they earn more. Household income in China accounts for only 50% of the country’s GDP when compared to 80% in US(Richburg, 2012).


Analysis and Own Opinions

Consumption is a component used in computation of GDP with high consumption rates leading to high GDP. It is therefore important to encourage citizens in a country to consume more in order to improve the economy of a country. In the case of China, consumption is low than savings as shown in the graph below:










From the graph above, it is evident that saving is below consumption in normal circumstances. Even though people are encouraged to save for future and unforeseen events, they should not save more than they consume. This is as shown in saving 1 curve, which is below the consumption curve. It is also notable that at disposable income equivalent to zero, a person will consume. At this point, consumption will be at A while savings will be at negative A, an equal negative amount. This is because consumption at this level will be based on debts that will be offset by future savings (Arnold, 2010).

In the normal circumstances, the saving curve, S1 will always be below the consumption curve, C, since consumers are encouraged to consume more and improve the economy of their country. This can be through increase in interest rates that will control the market and encourage people to consume by use credit facilities since the obtained funds have promising returns (Arnold, 2010). However, this is not the case for China in which saving is more (S2) than consumption (C). Even though the saving curve start at negative as it should, a time will come when savings will equal the consumption at X and later surpass the consumption curve to S2. In such circumstances, the consumers are saving more than they are saving and this has negative effect on the economy of the country. This is the reason the government in China calls for increased consumption to improve on the country’s GDP since the country has for long dependent on the currently decreasing external market. 




Arnold, R. A. (2010). Economics. Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Richburg, K. B. (2012). Getting Chinese to stop saving and start spending is a hard sell. Washington Post.Retrieved from

Published in Uncategorised


The Point of View in O'Brien’s The Things They Carried

            The book The Things They Carried was written Tim Obrein in 1990 that was among the American troops who took part during the Vietnam. It is based on true story Obrien’s truth memories and fiction. O’brien is the protagonist and the story is closely related to other memoirs of soldiers who have taken part in several wars. The book gives various short stories  of accounts by men who were foot soldiers during the war in Alpha Company. The main characters in the book includeTim O'Brien, Lt. Jimmy Cross, Bob "Rat" Kiley, and Norman Bowker, among others.The stories about life of the soldiers after the war are also explained. The most evident things about the war include the manner in which the war was ambiguous, inability to communicate basic truths, and inability by the soldiers to collect facts about the war, and the way in which the soldiers were alienated by the soldiers. This essay evaluates the major two major themes in the book.

            In respect to the name given to the book by Obrien, The Things They Carried, the main theme revolves around the emotional and physical burdens that the soldiers carried during and after their service in the Army. The soldiers carried many heavy loads, while their emotional loads comprised of longing, desperation, grief, and terror. Through the story given by Obrien, it is apparent that the emotional stress exceeds the physical stress. This is evident in the case of Henry Dobbins carries his girlfriend’s pantyhose all through the war. This indicates that he misses her and longs for her love. For the men in charge of the troops, like      Jimmy Cross, they have carry additional physical loads comprising of maps and compasses, ,which they have to refer to in efforts to navigate in the rough foreign terrain. Every member of the Alpha Company is has some degree of fear; however, soldiers are not required to display any degree of fear. This is because that makes them vulnerable, and thus makes other soldiers cruel.

After the war, many soldiers suffer post-traumatic stress because they continue to recall their experiences in the war. “Posttraumatic symptoms greatly compound the stress of readjustment (Zayfert and DeViva 194). The survivors continue to grief, confusion, and guilt as they come in terms with the war experience. Jimmy Cross love for Ted Lavender makes him never to forgive himself for the death of his friend. Norman Bowker level of confusion and grief is so strong that he drives around their home talking about courage. While some wars suffer the psychological burdens alone, others are able to share with others, and thereby relieve themselves. Obrien shares with the readers of the book about his war experience, this is evident in “By telling stories, you objectify your own experience. You separate it from yourself. You pin down certain truths. You make up others” (Obrien 152); however, Boker keeps his emotional burdens within himself.

            Another theme that is evident as the driver for motivation in for the soldiers is  Obrien’s book is fear of shame. This is evident in “They carried the soldier’s greatest fear, which was the fear of blushing. Men killed, and died…” (Obrien 20). It is evident that the soldiers fear for failure and fear to be ashamed among ones,peers drives them to strive to achieve their goals of serving the Americans. For example, in the story of On The Rainy River, Obrien does not find the justification the war, however, because he does not to appear a coward among his peers, he has to pursue the course. Obrien is not stopped from fleeing into Canada in pursuit of his country’s  course, but because of his concern for his family and the community perception of him. Therefore, the conflict between personal goals and those of the society are clearly displayed. The fear of shame drives the soldiers into Vietnam, but also fear about their relationship with one another. Concern about social acceptance by the soldiers is such a big issue that makes some make some dangerous tactics. There are strange acts such as Lemon way of having his tooth removed in efforts to reduce the chances of fainting.

Through the book by Obrien, it is evident that the he is able to display what the o the Americans went through during the war in Vietnam. The psychological effects of the soldiers are evident and Obrien is able to display that in an impeccable. Through the book, it is evident that the physical and psychological burdens are evident in the book. More so, fear remains the most dramatic force that united the soldiers. Nonetheless, the fear caused some conflicts of conflict between the soldiers inner thoughts and those of serving their country and the society. 



Works Cited

Obrien, Tim. The Things They Carried: A Work of Fiction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990. Internet resource

Zayfert, Claudia &DeViva, Jason C. When Someone You Love Suffers from Posttraumatic Stress: What to Expect and What You Can Do. NY: Guilford Press, 2011. Print.


Published in Uncategorised





International Marketing: Bon-Mar Textiles Inc. Company Analysis








Bon-Mar Textiles Inc. is a Canadian company that has focused its business style on making casual clothes for all sexes. The company has grown overtime to become one of the leading Canadian casual wear designer companies taking advantage of it being the only company in the country licensed to distribute genuine Mystique foil spandex. The company’s working schedule and process involves manufacturing, retailing of the commodities, and wholesaling of yard or piece goods of natural as well as manmade fibers. This has led to the build up and development of the company’s brand in the Canada at a very fast speed. It is notable that the company has become a huge competitive opponent in the apparel industry in Canada. Being a private company in the apparel industry in Canada, Bon-Mar Textiles Inc. has managed to succeed as a result of its quality products. For more than 40 years, Bon-Mar Textiles Inc. has become a one-stop shop for all customers’ garment designing needs as a result of its exceptional customer service and excellent pricing (Bon-Mar Textiles Inc., 2015).

The company has a developed a successful and strategy way of getting its customers. It believes that it has to get close to the customers rather than wait for them come to the company. As a result, the company organizes personalized fabric shows in which the customers are given an opportunity to see the company’s new products in a relaxed atmosphere, at their own convenience, and with the help of the personal product representative. The fabric shows enable the customers see the introduced brands as well as the ever expanding product lines. The shows also provide updated information on market trends, future innovations, and fashion directions giving the customers as assurance of what they expect. The shows also offer a great moment in which the company representatives listen and attend to customers’ requests, ideas, and concerns (Bon-Mar Textiles Inc., 2015).

The management of the Bon-Mar Textiles Inc. Company laid down a strategy that would see the company grow to become the largest apparel retailer in the entire Canada. Their strategy was aimed at making sure that at the end of each fiscal year, the company would record substantial increase from the sales made in the country. A review of the success of this company thus far shows that the management is in the right track in meeting these established goals.  The management is very keen on identifying opportunities and using them to maximize on the profits that are witnessed at the end of each fiscal year in by this company. This is ensured through offering of wide spread of quality textile products to the customers. Further, the vast selection of trims makes decoration of the sold costumes very easy and appealing. Considering the effective manufacturing processes in the company, it is notable that the company has become a leading innovator in protective head gear and safety uniforms. Since the company if among the largest distributors of 3M Scothclite, it offers competitive pricing. Additionally, the company is always searching for ways to improve the workplace so that the workers are safe when working. This has made the company the first to come up with Bump caps in the market. It is also notable that the company sells what it advertises and ensures that the products are of the described quality. The 100% cotton t-shirts, shorts, and hoodies for instance feature on the company’s original 3M Scotchlite reflective designs, which are exciting and fulfilling to the customers (Bon-Mar Textiles Inc., 2015).     

Reviewing the industry in which the Bon-Mar Textiles Inc. Company operates, it is notable that it is in a highly competitive market. There are several international and local companies in the apparel and textile industry in the country. This has led to increased competition. This competition has seen the company come up with strategies for keeping their market share as high as possible. These strategies include the increased online presence of the company’s commodities for customers, reduction of the cost for production and continued production in order to meet the demands of the consumers and avoid inconveniences due top delays. The Company has also opened more stores all over the country in order to increase its reach to the customers. There are plans to further expand in to the global market extensively. The company has got plans to have new outlets in countries such as Japan, China, North America and Europe (Bon-Mar Textiles Inc., 2015). This way, the company will have dealt with the issue of competition and surpassed its competitor’s.

For the years that the company has been in operation ever since its establishment, the management has devoted itself to providing the customers with high quality products at a lower price. These products are manufactured as per the demands of the customer and thus, it is very rare for a commodity to miss out in the market when there is demand for it. The customers love this company because it does not price its commodities expensively compared to the other competitors in the market. This is one of the competitive edges that the company has got. By making sure that its products are popular among people at all ages, the company is able to experience increased profits and have better returns in revenue at the end of each fiscal year. Appealing to all ages is just but one of the competitive edges that the company has got (Bon-Mar Textiles Inc., 2015).

Even though the company has decided to go global in order to beat competition and increase its sales and profits, this does not come easy. This is because there are certain cultural challenges that pose a threat to the company when going global. One of the major cultural challenges is that of cultural diversity. Bon-Mar Textiles Inc. is used to hiring employees from the country since it operates locally and thus believes that such employees will be able to relate well with its customers. However, going global requires hiring employees from the host countries since such employees are more informed in customer needs and interests. Cultural diversity will also include use of different languages on the print outs on fabrics. The company should ensure that the language on the products is understood by the target customers Foreign (Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, 2013).

Nevertheless, the company is advantageous in as a result of its effective management and it is therefore able beat cultural challenges. The management understands that it can succeed in the global world if it creates an atmosphere of mutual respect and cultural equality. It understands the need for democracy of cultures. This way, it is easy to know the language that is considered abusive by different cultures (Shrivastava, 2012). The management also understands the interpretation of different nonverbal languages in different cultures as well as cultural differences that should be respected.     

By keeping up with the industry trends and opportunities in the market, the Bon-Mar Textiles Inc. Company has been able to continue enjoying the bigger percentage of the market share in Canada. The low prices keep attracting the consumers to this company and this is a major competitive edge for the company over its competitors as it enables it to position itself in the market as the leading company in apparels.






Bon-Mar Textiles Inc. (2015). Bon-Mar Textiles Inc. Retrieved from

Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada. (2013). Canadian Culture in a Global World. Retrieved from

Shrivastava, A. (2012). The cultural challenges of globalisation. Retrieved from

Published in Uncategorised



A Prosecutor’s Summary of Evidence against McVeigh

            After growing increasingly frustrated by the government, Timothy James "Tim" McVeigh and Terry Nichols conspired to bomb a federal building to punish the authorities for their choices. Together, they worked on a lakeside camping ground next to McVeigh’s Army post to construct an ANNM explosive device. McVeigh drove the device, mounted on a rented Ryder truck to the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building a few minutes before the office doors opened for the day's business.The bomb was made of two thousand and three hundred kilograms of ammonium nitrate and nitromethane. A few minutes before reaching the building, at 9.00AM, McVeigh stopped to light a two-minute fuse. The device exploded automatically at 9.02 AM just after the expiry of the two minutes that he had set.

McVeigh and his colleague stole or purchased most of the materials used in making the bomb. McVeigh bought nine kinestiks from Roger E. Moore, a gun collector in august 1994. On the other hand, Nichols purchased 23 kg of ammonium nitrate from Mid-Kansas Coop on 30 Sept. 1994 and an additional 23 kg bag on 18 Oct. 1994. During the same time, they robbed Roger E. Moore of guns, jewels, silver and gold worth $60,000 and transported it in the victim’s car. Consequently, McVeigh did not have to raise more money for the bomb since it would cost around $5,000. In Oct. 1994, he lied to authorities that he was motorcycle racer, and thus he needed 210 liters of nitromethane. In a rented storage space, he stockpiled seven crates each of eighteen-inch long Tovex sausages, five hundred electric blasting caps, and eighty spools of shock tube. In addition, he stole eighteen thousand kilograms of ammonium nitrate fuel oil and later purchased an additional seventeen bags of the same.

Arrangement of the bomb was aboard a rented Ryder truck in which, "he added a dual fuse ignition system accessible from the truck's front cab” (Serrano, 1998, p. 43). In addition, “He drilled two holes in the cab of the truck under the seat, while two holes were also drilled in the body of the truck” (Serrano, 1998, p. 43). To ensure that the bomb exploded, he added an ignition that would have led to his death for it had to be done from a close range.




Serrano, R. A. (1998). One of Ours: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Published in Uncategorised








Forensic Investigation's Findings Along With the Evidence against Timothy McVeigh

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Timothy James "Tim" McVeigh born on 23 April 1968 and later executed on 11 June 2011 was responsible for the 19 April 1995 detonation the truck bomb at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. Quintessentially, the bomb led to the death of one hundred and sixty-eight and injuries to more than six hundred people (Shariat, Mallonee& Stephens-Stidham, 1998). The FBI was involved in a comprehensive forensic research to link McVeigh to the bombing. One of the major links is earplugs that he wore to reduce the impact of deafening sound that would come after the explosion. The recovery of the earplugs showed revealed fingerprints of the accused showing that he had used them at the scene of the crime. In essence, the earplugs werein the possession of McVeighupon his arrest, about eighty minutes after the explosion. The earplugs tested positively for nitroglycerine (NG) which is vital in making of high explosives and producing ethylene glycol dinitrite (EDGN) and dynamite. Additionally, the right pocket tested positive for pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) a highly explosive compound present in several bombings (Serrano, 1997).

On the other hand, the jeans trousers and tow T-shirts that the accused was wearing contained traces of residues of the bomb. In addition, his knife and the knife’s sheath had the same traces establishing that he had handled the bomb before it exploded. Ideally, most of the forensic tests were McVeigh’s properties while others came from the debris. Fundamentally, his T-shirt with blue sleeves had traces of both PETN and NG. The same day, McVeigh wore another T-shirt that too tested positively for the compounds (Serrano, 1997).

Lastly, pieces took from the inside of Ryder truck he had rented confirmed presence of NG and other explosive compounds. According to Serrano (01 Feb. 1997), the analysts believe that “The back of the truck allegedly carried 4,800 pounds of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixed into barrels, with the barrels wrapped by a detonator cord.” Notably, the forensic evidence was enough to convict McVeigh of the crime. 




Serrano, R. A. (01 Feb. 1997). “The Los Angeles Times." Prosecutors Focus Bombing Case on 6 Key Items. Retrieved 31 Jan. 2015 from

Shariat, S., Mallonee, S., & Stephens-Stidham, S. (December 1998). "Oklahoma City Bombing Injuries". Injury Prevention Service, Oklahoma State Department of Health.


Published in Uncategorised
Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:17

Facts in Timothy McVeigh case



Facts in Timothy McVeigh case







On April 19 1995, one of the famous trials in the American history commenced. This involved the trial of Timothy McVeigh who was considered to be one of the biggest American terrorists. This was after he was taken in as a suspect in the one of the most deadliest attacks prior to the 9/11th one. The attack orchestrated by McVeigh is commonly referred to as the Oklahoma City bombing in which there were 168 casualties and over 600 injuries. To date it remains to be one of the most significant act which involved terrorism orchestrated by an American citizen.

Childhood and growth

Born in the year 1968, McVeigh was the only son in a family of three children. During his early schooling, he faced a lot of bullying that led to his seeking refuge in fantasy that was seeking refuge in taking revenge against his bullies. In the perspective of his fantasy, the government of the United States was the ultimate bully. Known to be a withdrawn in his adolescent years, he only had one girlfriend and described his character to journalists that he had no idea on how to impress girls. He was later to make a mark when he hacked into the government systems under the handle “the wanderer”.

At the age of 20 years, McVeigh graduated from the army and had great interest in firearms where he read much about sniper tactics and explosives. He was to be one of the recognized top scoring gunners and in such way became recognized by the US military in this regard.



His arrest

McVeigh was at first arrest for driving without plates and being in procession of unlicensed firearm. At the time of arrest ea was wearing a t-shirt with a photo of Abraham Lincoln and labeled “thus always to tyrants”. It was while in jail that he was identified as one of the most wanted criminals by the state owing to the identification documents after the bomb attack.

Facts of the trial

In a case that was led by the prosecutor  Hartzler’s, he described the events of the day of the bombing in the words “ the truck was there also to impose the will of Timothy McVeigh on the rest of America in the hopes  of seeing blood flow in the streets of America.” He further quoted the statement on the t-shirt worn by the suspect on the day of the bombing that read, “The tree of Liberty must be refreshed from time to time with blood of patriots and tyrants.”  This was further enhanced by the evidence of the suspects close friend Lori frontier. In her submission, she stated that McVeigh had at one time constructed a model of a truck bomb using cans of soup. Further to this, she admitted to having laminated a fake driver’s license for the suspect that was in the name of Robert King McVeigh. This was the license that the suspect used to hire the track that was used in the attack.

The state presented a total of 137 witnesses most of whom were direct victims of the attack. However, the most notable fact of the case was the fallout of the suspect and the lawyer. While McVeigh suspected his lawyer of leaking a story of his confession to the “Dallas Morning news”, his lawyer in his book “Others unknown: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing Conspiracy” depicted an image where the lawyer showed the suspect as not being in any way less to blame for the event.


















Michel, Lou; Herbeck, Dan (2002). American Terrorist: Timothy McVeigh & the Tragedy at Oklahoma City. HarperCollins. p. 371. ISBN 0-06-039407-2.

Linder, Douglas O. ( 2006). "The Oklahoma City Bombing & The Trial of Timothy McVeigh,", online posting, University of Missouri–Kansas City, Law School faculty projects, People in the News: Timothy McVeigh: The Path to Death Row, transcript of program broadcast on CNN, June 9, 2001,


Published in Uncategorised
Page 3 of 6