Items filtered by date: December 2021

Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:32

Personal Statement




Personal Statement




Since I was young, I have been interested in business as my father has several of them. I have pursued several degree programs on business studies to help me achieve my dream. However, i felt that I should pursue a Bachelor’s degree in Sales and Marketing in order to achieve my career objectives. For my career objective, I am seeking a position in Sales and Marketing wherein I can utilize my communication skills and my Bachelor of Marketing and Business Administration degree to build a strong distribution network for achieving a higher market penetration level. This can best be achieved with another degree in Sales and Marketing.

I have chosen to pursue a Bachelor’s degree inSales and Marketing at DePaul University, Graduate school in order to improve on my GPA and increase my knowledge base. I have a Bachelor’s of Science Degree in Marketing Business from the Methodist University of North Carolina, Fayetteville, NC. I also have a Bachelor’s degree in Business Administration from Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud University – Riyadh. I have also finished an English Program from the English Language Training Institute in Charlotte, NC and thus can speak fluently in English, which is not my first language.  

            On a personal level, I have a very good character as an individual. I am well behaved, composed and a very cheerful person. My public relation skills are exceptional and I can basically fit in any crowd at any time. I have very strong administration and management skills, complex problem solving skills, time management skills, sales and marketing skills from my prior working experience, and computer skills.I am a well-disciplined, industrious person with a very pleasant personality. In my time at the university, I always put in extra work and went beyond the course requirements in the quantity and quality of my projects. I have a very strong perseverance and initiative in every duty that is assigned to me and this is what made me achieve what I have achieved so far. I can speak fluently and clearly in both English and Arabic.

I have won several awards that prove that I am industrious. Some of these are K3 Enterprises Business Intelligence and Marketing project Completion Certificate in 2014, Operation Inasmuch volunteer Honors Award in 2014, King Abdullah Foreign Scholarship program in 2012-2015, and VitaminWater Case Competition Honors Award in 2014. I also have strong working experience as an online marketer in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (where I am currently working) and also as a manager assistant collector.


Published in Uncategorised
Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:32

Nursing Theories


Nursing Theories

Over time, the profession of nursing has greatly evolved. For instance, the profession of nursing has moved from overdependence on full medical directions in respect to provision of basic healthcare to a self-regulating modality profession upholding its own discrete nursing interventions, nursing models, and as well as nursing theories. In respect to nursing theories, a number of nursing scholars have greatly offered their contribution to develop the various nursing theories in existence. Generally, all the various nursing theories are classified into three major or broad nursing theories categories: nursing practices theories, mid-range theories, and grand nursing theories. This paper describes the cognitive dissonance - a mid-range nursing theory developed by Festinger (Masters, 2015). 

            Theoretical nursing basis forms the bases or the foundation for efficient nursing practice. As such, for nurses to be efficient patient educators they need to familiarize themselves with the various nursing theories. Nursing theories offer the necessary framework for nurses to use as tools of addressing patients’ health needs (Bastable, 2006).  This brings us to a deduction that the nurses are able to offer the necessary patient health care interventions by drawing from any of the various nursing theories or from a combination of any appropriate theories in order to achieve the desired patient result. As such, the importance of studying the various nursing theories is to equip the practicing nurse profession with the necessary competencies that will allow him or her make valid and reasonable decisions in respect to addressing the immediate and future health care requirement for his or her patient. Of great importance here pertain the ability of the nurse to offer effective and appropriate education to the patient and his or her family member. Generally, the importance of studying nursing theories for a practicing nurse is to build nursing knowledge. The major idea behind nursing theories is provision of patient education.

            As previously outlined, there are several nursing theories, all of which fall into three broad categories - nursing practices theories, mid-range theories, and grand nursing theories. The Cognitive Dissonance Theory is a mid-range nursing theory that was developed by Festinger in the year 1957. The theory is a social psychology theory. The Cognitive Dissonance Theory specifies that human beings crave for consistency and are willing to implement any necessary change and adaptation in order to regain or achieve consistency (Gruber, 2003). 

            According to Festinger (1957), an individual or a patient for that case experiences cognitive dissonance when he or she encounters inconsistency situations that require a life change. By definition, dissonance refers to a state of discomfort an individual feel after encountering an action that differ from what one believes. A good example of this state of discomfort is experienced by individuals who continue to smoke regardless of knowing it very well that smoking poses irreversible health risks. In such a situation, through cognitive dissonance, the individuals in question may be motivated by this state of discomfort and implement changes in order to regain or achieve consistency with the aim of eliminating the discomfort. According to Festinger (1957), the amount of discomfort caused has no correlation with the ability of the individual to change; As such, the desire to change has to be high and the dissonance caused moderate. Note that, if the latter holds true, the individual in question will explore and give change priority.

            The reason why I selected this theory is because of the distressful or discomfort situations individuals go through in life almost on a daily bases. The theory elaborates on how individuals in life can adapt to positive behavior changes and cope or manage these discomforts or distressful situations in order to live a healthy and productive life. As such, the purpose of this theory is to instill the nursing professionals with the necessary skills and competencies that will enable them educate patients on how to adapt to positive behavior changes once encountered with a stressful situation and bounce back to normal living. 

            To elaborate on Cognitive Dissonance Theory, think of a patient with a hip injury. Such a patient might be faced with several stressors. For instance, think of stressors associated with his or her threatened health and stressors associated with the inevitable changesthat the patient must adapt to after diagnosis. In such a situation, the patient is required to make changes in respect to his attitudes, values, and as well as beliefs in order to regain the desired consistencies in life in his or her entire recovery period. In this respect, the changes might include, mobility restriction, acceptance to be assisted by others, diet change, and among other changes in order to boost the healing process. According to Festinger (1957), the nursing professional offering health care to such a patient is obligated to recognize the patient’s definition and perception of consistency. In addition, the professional nurse is expected to recognize patient’s intimidations to consistency in order to educate the patient effectively while instilling positive changes and at the same time suppressing any negative thoughts that the patients might develop.

            The Cognitive Dissonance Theory views nursing leadership in such a manner that the nursing professionals should act as leaders in respect to addressing patient healthcare needs. As such, a knowledgeable leader who is able to listen, identify, and device an appropriate approach to handle each patient in a unique way depending on the complexity or the simplicity of the situation at hand. In this respect I refer to a real-life practice experience in which I encounter cigarette smokers’ patients. Apart from offering the necessary information on how they should quit smoking and adapt to positive behavior for the sake of their health, I also track their progress and offer further assistance.

            Equally, the Cognitive Dissonance Theory views the nursing education as a profession requiring knowledge and skills in order to handle the varying patients need in a unique manner depending on the complexity or the simplicity of the patients needs. To highlight a real-life practice experience on this view I refer to a number of youths I encounter often requiring services on how to quit drug abuse. I have to admit here that possessing the required knowledge, competencies, and skills on how to approach each case in a unique manner is very important in order to instill the desired positive behavior to the patient.

            Theoretical nursing basis form the bases or the foundation for efficient nursing practice. The Cognitive Dissonance Theory provides the nursing professional with a theoretical framework on how to assist patients deal with distressful or discomfort situations in life affecting or that might be posing treats in their life. As such, a practicing nursing profession ought to gain all the required competences on this theory to aid the recovery process of his or her patient in an effective and professional manner.












Bastable, S. B. (2006).  Essentials of patient education. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Illinois: Stanford University Press.

Gruber, M. (2003). Cognitive dissonance theory and motivation for change. Gastroenterology      Nursing, 26(6), 242-245.

Masters, K. (2015). Nursing theories: A framework for professional practice.


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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:31

Ethics and Legal implications




Ethics and Legal implications




Code of ethics for practicing nurses acts as guide in the nursing field to ensure that practicing nurses do what is right and the nurses are cautious when dealing with patients as well as their family members. It also acts as a guide for nurses to make the best and most viable decision when faced with ethical dilemmas, which is common in the nursing field. It also acts as a guide to ensure a healthy relationship with the patients and the other workers in the nursing field. Nurses are expected to fulfill the interests of the patient’s families, community members, and the larger society through provision of quality health care (ANA, 2015). In such cases, nurses are faced with ethical challenges that require the application of the code of ethics in handling them.

It is also notable that nurses should provide safe, competent, and ethical care, promote wellbeing and health while being accountable for all actions and decisions taken. However, in most cases nurses are faced with challenges that are hard to address. A good example is the case euthanasia, which might be regarded a right for patients based on the ethical code of autonomy in which the patients’ right to make decisions regarding their own lives should be respected. On the other hand, beneficence expects that nurses to be committed to improve the health of their patients while non-maleficence prevents nurses from causing harm to the patients through inflicting pain, incapacitating, causing offense, killing, depriving people, or causing suffering and pain (Pereira, 2011).In this case, nurses should be very intelligent to make a decision that will be justifiable ethically. This paper explores the issue of euthanasia and the problems it poses to the nurses.


Ethics: Euthanasia

            The topic of euthanasia is important to nursing because it causes controversy that might implicate the actions of the nurses. There are instances in which patients are under intense pain that can be eliminated through euthanasia. This is based on the fact that a nurse should promote wellbeing by preventing pain from the patient. This means that the nurse should do all she can to ensure that the patient is relived of pain. Further, there are patients who are suffering from chronic illnesses, are in intense pain, are aged (over 70 years), and their chance of survival is minimal. In this case, the nurse can consider alleviating the pain of the patient through euthanasia. However, this does not mean that the nurse should make the decision solely without the consent of the patient and also that of the family members(ANA, 2015). A nurse cannot on her own decide to remove life support machines from a dying patient before she dies unless he has obtained the consent of the close family members. Euthanasia is thus a good topic in nursing since it will enlighten nurses on the issues and know when they carry out the exercise without getting into legal issues.

            On the other hand, there are times in which a patient will consider euthanasia herself and thus request the nurse to do it. While some of the patients who consider euthanasia are critically or terminally ill, others are not. It is easy for patients to give up in life especially with long illnesses while not necessarily such illnesses are terminal. There are patients who would also give up on life simply because they have been readmitted to the hospitals severally. Others will give up on life as a result of intense pain even though such pain should not necessarily be long-term (Pereira, 2011). In such cases, the nurses consider the fact that patients have a right to make decisions regarding their lives. In fact, it is not possible to force a patient to a treatment process. Discussion about euthanasia would thus help nurses know how to handle similar cases that they face and also where to go for help.

Learning about euthanasia is not only important to nursing but also important to the public. This is because the nurse can enlighten the family members and public members who are not aware of euthanasia of its use. There are people who have never heard of assisted suicide. In this case, the public will be enlightened on the issue of mercy killing at times when a patient is undergoing prolonged and intense pain that cannot be relieved through any other medical process(Pereira, 2011). The public will also be enlightened on the benefits of euthanasia especially to prevent high and unaffordable bills for patients who are terminally ill and in their last days of their lives. This is so when the terminally ill patients are undergoing very expensive treatment processes that will not better their health or promote their wellbeing but would rather increase the costs to the family members. In this case, when the public (family members) are aware of euthanasia, they would consider it to save for future important things.

Legal Foundations

            While euthanasia is acceptable in most circumstances as the last resort when the nurse is relieving the patient of pain, it might lead to legal implications if not ethically considered. Nurses among other care practitioners should consider euthanasia as the last alternative to relieving pain after failure of all other possible treatment processes. If a nurse cannot ethically justify any carried out euthanasia, she will be held legally liable for the loss of a life. This is because among the major responsibilities of a nurse is to promote health. Additionally, even when the nurse can ethically justify euthanasia, she should ensure that she has obtained informed and written consent of the patient and the immediate family members. She should not only consider it a wise idea to terminate the life of a person and do it without his consent or that of his family members. Since in most cases patients who are subjected to euthanasia are critically ill and thus may not be able to make decisions about their lives, the nurse should consider a written consent from the close family members (ANA, 2015). For the case of a child for instance, the nurse can obtain the informed consent of the parents. This way, the nurse will be free of any legal issues filed against her.

            Euthanasia topic in the healthcare system ensures that nurses can carry out the process ethically. They are able to help patients make informed decisions regarding their lives especially for patients who consider ending their lives. They should not seem like they are waiting for a patient to suggest euthanasia and the next minute it is done. For the public, it ensures that the public members do not consider euthanasia the best way to end their problems. For instance, one should be depressed and think that he can propose euthanasia to his doctor. They will be aware of the circumstances under which euthanasia is acceptable.

            It is possible for nurses to be faced with issues that conflict their ethics with legal liabilities. A good example is a case in which I had to choose between the decision of a male patient and that of his wife. The patient was terminally ill, diagnosed with chronic cancer and he called me and his wife to talk about his decision to end his life. He was in intense pain and did not see the need of the expensive chemotherapies that were draining the family’s resources and would leave the wife in financial problems. I saw the sense in that and ethically, I was allowed to help him end his life. On the other hand, the wife was not ready to let him go and was optimistic that some technology would be sought and her husband will benefit from the new invented treatment. She threatened to sue me if I pushed on with the process. Even though my ethical standards allow me to relieve my patient of pain, I was faced with legal obligations. I had to hold on a bit longer in order to have the wife convinced that euthanasia was the best option. She eventually did and I carried on with the process.

Nurse Practice Act

My Nursing Practice Act is that my nursing practice can be revoked if I show incompetence in my practice by being a danger to the public or evidencing unsafe practice (Florida Board of Nursing, 2015). The act is important to the topic of euthanasia because it ensures that I do not threaten the public by killing the people I do not get along with. This is because if nurses were not regulated by a strict nursing act, it would be possible to hear of cases in which nurses revenge to their enemies by ending their lives when receiving treatment in hospitals. It ensures that nurses do not mix the nursing practice with personal issues or personal differences with the patients. A nurse who is not regulated can also decide to punish a patient by failing to relieve him of his pain through euthanasia if it is the best course of action.


Nursing is a field meant to improve the lives of people by alleviating pain through the best alternative. This can be through treatment or euthanasia. Nurses are regulated by code of ethics to ensure that when they consider euthanasia, it is ethically justifiable. Nurses should not only consider euthanasia simply because the patient proposes it. Even though they should respect the decision of patients pertaining the treatment offered, nurses should help patients make informed decisions concerning their lives. Nurses should also ensure that all their practices are free of legal implications.




ANA. (2015). End of Life Issues.Retrieved from

Florida Board of Nursing.(2015). Nursing Practice Act.Retrieved from

Pereira, J. (2011). Legalizing Euthanasia or Assisted Suicide: The Illusion of Safeguards and Controls. Current Oncology, 18(2), 38-45.




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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:31

Technology in Criminal Justice


Technology in Criminal Justice


Brief Summary on Initial Knowledge Concerning Computer Applications in the Field of Criminal Justice

Before enrolling for this course, I thought that every sector in the country has advanced to use technology since it is an era of technology. Even though I did not know how, I thought that the criminal justice in each country and especially from the developed countries such as US knew how to use technology. This is because the criminals have advanced to use technology in their criminal activities in cybercrime and I expected that the criminal justice could do the same and apply technology to determine criminals. In fact, I thought use of computers was enough technology to help catch criminals. This means that I thought when the criminal justice system had computers in their offices, they were good to go and catch all types of criminals. This was the same with CCTV cameras, which I regarded among the best technological tools used to catch on criminals. I have heard of forensic tests that I presume uses technology to identify criminals and criminal acts. In fact, I thought the amount of technology applied in the criminal justice department was enough to deal with all sorts of crime.     

Brief Overview of the New Material Learned about Computer Applications in the Field of Criminal Justice

However, after enrolling in the course and reading a number of materials enlightening people on use of technology in in the criminal justice department, I now notice that what I knew is baseless. The computers used by criminal investigators, which I thought meant everything are not enough.According to Myers and Myers (2015), “there is not a comprehensive body of knowledge for the effective analysis of computer infrastructure threats and vulnerabilities” (p. 1). This implies that while organizations using computers and other forms of technology and thus at risk of cybercrime, there is insufficient knowledge to understand the threats they are exposed to and how to mitigate them. For instance, organizations are aware of the errors/ omissions that employees can make when feeding data to the computer systems. They also know how natural disasters can harm an organization. While there are measures in place to prevent these, there are no measures in place to prevent intentional acts of employees and other outsiders. As a result, it is noted that “Many organizations are not aware of the potential for losses or degree of their vulnerability to it, and sufficient and practical methods of deterrence, detection,prevention, and recovery have not yet been implemented or even found” (Myers & Myers, 2015, p. 2). It is also notable that the criminal investigation department that should be responsible for preventing technology crime is unable to do so because of lack of the required knowledge to do so. This is because technology crime is hard to detect, difficult to collect evidence, which is easy to destroy, and hard to identify the real culprits. It is thus notable that while technology has improved crime detection, police transportation, and communication among officers, the same technology has also the rate of cross-border crimes (Deflem, 2015).

Brief Statement on Topics to be Further Explored in the Area of Computer Applications in the Field of Criminal Justice

            With increased rate of technology crime, I would like to know what the issue has not been considered a serious crime and laws made to cover the issue. Once white collar crime was noted, there were laws that were created to deal with perpetrators of these laws. While cybercrime is a serious type of crime that results to unquantifiable amounts of losses to the victims, I would like this issue explored further. We should be provided with reasons as why laws have not been formulated and when they will be formulated. We should know what the government bodies responsible for creating laws have been waiting for and how deep they need the problem to go before they can come up with solutions. I would like this issue addressed because if there were laws on technology crime, I am certain there would be strategies to help the officers in the field as well. I would also wish this topic was explored further because as Myers and Myers (2015) notes, lack of laws governing technology crime makes it hard for prosecutors, law enforcers lack the required knowledge, and this type of crime is not a high priority for most legislators. This is also supported by Deflem (2015) who argue that police technology is so limited that it cannot handle technology crimes that it is responsible for addressing. This is an indication that police officers are not given the same extent of technology that would help fight high-technology crimes. People should thus be enlightened on this; why it is so currently, and what changes are likely to be done in the near future.

Current Events Addressing the New Things Learned Related to Computer Applications in the Field of Criminal Justice

            Currently, technology crime has increased with the recent target on mobile phones and banks. The virus sent on people phones is a type of technology crime. The latest threat report by McAfee on security threats on mobile devices calls for action by the investigation department. People’s mobile phones and other gadgets are under constant attack of malware, which is continuously devised. For instance, there was a 44% increase in malware creation between 2011 and 2012. Portable devices are seen as the latest hot targets because they contain financial and personal information that hackers can access using Trojan horse viruses. Visiting the internet is also a great risk since it is noted that much mischief happens without a person’s knowledge and even without downloading anything (Kelly, 2013). From these current events, it is evident that it is not easy to fight technology crime and the law enforcers are far from addressing the issue.

Brief Summary of the Key Points Addressed in the Current Events Located

From these events, it is evident that the criminals in technology crime are fast in applying technology in their activities. They do not stick to the same type of technology or crime and before people know it, they are using more sophisticated technology. The perpetrators are not easy to identify because they do not come into contact with their victims and in fact, they are not even in the system when the crime is taking place. For instance, a person will set viruses targeting people’s mobile phones and sit and watch waiting to get hold of his prey. It is also not easy to know when someone is falling a victim because one does not need to download anything and the dangerous sites visited to be caught. 

Compare and Contrast the Key Points Identified in the Current Event with Those Discussed in the Unit

From the current and the discussions in the unit, it is evident that technology crimes are on the increase. It is also clear that most people do not consider them serious and thus a person will ignore a virus on his phone. Further, these crimes are not easy to detect even with the involved of crime investigators. It therefore follows that the police department is far from dealing with technology crime.    




Deflem, M (2015). Technology and the internationalization of policing: A comparative-historical perspective. Proquest, 1-16.

Kelly, H. (2013). Cyber-criminals are targeting phones and bank info.Retrieved from

Myers, L. J., & Myers, L. B. (2015).Identifying the required knowledge elements for the effective detection, investigation, and prosecutionof high technology crime: The perspective of academe.Proquest, 1-17.

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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:31

The Underground in UK (London)


The Underground in UK (London)


1.0 Introduction. 3

2.0 The Reasons behind the Rise of Co-Production in the Delivery of Public Services. 4

2.1 Advantages of Co-Production in Public Service. 4

2.2 Disadvantages of Co-Production in Public Service. 5

3.0 Partnership in Public Service. 6

3.1 The Role of Managers in Running Public Service Partnerships. 8

4.0 The Reasons for the Success of Public Financing Initiatives (PFI). 9

5.0 How the Government Can Benefit From Private Capital 11

6.0 Conclusion. 12





The Underground in UK (London)

1.0 Introduction

            The London Underground is the pioneer of underground transport system having been constructed in 1863. Notably, it serves two hundred and seventy stations and covers four hundred and two kilometers. Although fifty-two percent is above the ground. The system was initially created by cut and cover, which resulted in tunnels just below the ground. Nevertheless, the original tunnels can take an ordinary sized trained given their enormous sizes. Afterward, the tubes were made much deeper and smaller leading to the name of the tube. In principle, the system was run by private companies, which merged in 1933 to London Passenger Transport Board. Currently, the London Underground Limited (LUL) operates the system, which is a subsidiary of Transport for London (TfL). Just like other for-profit businesses, customer cover ninety-one percent of the firm’s expenditure. The management realized the need to digitize fare collection; therefore introduced the contactless ticketing system, the Oyster in 2003. Notably, the London Passenger Transport Board was responsible for most of the art and design where it commissioned many public artworks, posters and station buildings in a modernist style. Despite the numerous changes in the transport sector, the London Underground has remained steadfast in its bid to stay as choice public transport method for the majority of people in London. Since 2003, the Department of Transport relegated the running of the London Underground to TfL to realize better service delivery. In addition, TfL agreed with three consortiums to run the system for the next thirty years by maintaining the tube and the trains. In essence, the London Underground is run by a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) to achieve the best results for all the people.

2.0 The Reasons behind the Rise of Co-Production in the Delivery of Public Services

Traditionally, the provision of public services was carried by public entities but the need to improve service delivery has led to the creation of partnerships in almost all public sectors. The provision of efficient and reliable transport system is a government responsibility but at the same time, it involves private entities to help run the process smoothly. According to co-production of public services, refers to "The mix of activities that both public service agents and citizens contribute to the provision of public utilities." In essence, the agents act as the regular producers or professionals while citizen production refers to "Voluntary efforts by individuals and groups to enhance the quality and/or quantity of the services they use” (Pestoff, Brandsen & Verschuere, 2013, p. 5). In this way, the people are involved in primary decision-making processes to ensure that the services they get from the sector meet their needs. In addition, the public can engage in other aspects to improve the quality of services such as volunteer services in the area.

2.1 Advantages of Co-Production in Public Service

Although co-production comes with costs, its benefits far much outweigh the expenses. Consequently, public sector has to adapt the system to improve the quality of outcomes, which is one the primary advantages of the process. In addition, the public is willing to collaborate with public service providers to improve the quality of services they receive. As end users, the people understand the kind of services that best suits their needs. On the same note, the values of the services that the public offers are enormous and, as a result, it goes a long way in improving service delivery. Further, communities and families contribute much economically although it is not measured in the public sector. For instance, in the healthcare sector, self-care programs reduce the emergency visits to general practitioners, decrease admissions and save enormous amounts of revenue for long-term patients (Pollock, Jean & Neil 2002). Accordingly, in the education sector, peer and self-assessment by learners reduce class sizes and improve their exam results. Consequently, it is understood that the involvement of the public in the industry has several advantages. The willingness of the public to engage in public services provides a cheap source of money for managing public service delivery (Khadaroo, 2014).

2.2 Disadvantages of Co-Production in Public Service

            According to Durose et al. (2013), co-production has limitations despite the many benefits that it brings to the government sector. For instance, the primary objective of co-production is to achieve efficiency at minimal costs. Nonetheless, measuring efficiency in the short term is almost impossible. Consequently, the public feels shortchanged because it does not reap the benefits that the government proposes when entering into partnerships with the private sector. In essence, many people believe that co-production is “becoming a byword for passing responsibilities to the communities, and that's leading to cynicism and anxiety” (Durose, 2013). On the same note, the government needs to design ways in which to maximize public involvement in service delivery to understand the dos and don’ts in co-production. Additionally, some people believe that PPPs benefit the rich with interests in large organizations that can secure the required finances for the deals. In effect, this affects the peoples’ faith in the consortium because they benefit a few in the society. On the same note, opponents believe that this is privatization of public utilities, which could affect their credibility towards service delivery. The people elect leaders to safeguard their interests in the running of public sector but diverting the same to the private sector is like evading their responsibilities. The government has to convince the public that the deals are for the best for the people.

3.0 Partnership in Public Service

            In principle, majority of public services and government initiatives are taking into partnership to improve the quality of services to the people. Competition in capitalist states forces many investors in the public sector to change the traditional methods of doing business to offer the best services in any area. Additionally, partnerships provide the government with an opportunity to maximize improvements in the public sector. Although the choices that most governments make are high risk, on the contrary, they provide maximum risks to the services. The London Underground has taken into partnership because a single entity cannot offer all the necessary services since it serves very many customers on a daily basis. On the same note, different people have diverse preferences, which call for the need to come up with a service that best meets the majority of the clients' needs. In essence, partnerships bring on board experts from different fields who work together to improve an organization. Notably, sharing of ideas between experts from diverse business fields provides solutions to problems that affect most firms across the world. At the same time, managing a small group of employees becomes easier as each manager has defined roles and target to achieve within a given time.

On the same note, Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) play in integral role in transforming the performance of the private sector. Traditionally, the central government owned and managed London Underground. However, in March 2003, the Department of Transport concluded a three thirty year PPP for maintaining and renewing the London Underground signaling, track, stations and trains. Before the process, the government had procured equipments worth £455 million. The PPPs would provide about £15.7 billion for the next thirty years. About half of the amount would be spent in the first seven and half years. Notably the contract involves three PPPs, which are Metronet and Tube Lines consortium. Although London Underground retains the responsibility for safety and operations, the three private sector infrastructure companies (Infracos) maintains the system. Ideally, London underground pays the private firms according to their delivery of outputs in terms of availability of assets as opposed to the cost of their works (House of Commons, 2005).

In effect, these Infracos must perform to their potential in order to reap maximum returns from the partnership. At the same time, their quest to achieve the most from the collaboration ensures improved service delivery for the people living in London. The deal has provisions for enacting changes in the prices of the partnership at least every seven and half years. The British central government transferred the ownership of London Underground to Transport for London (TfL). Notably TfL reports to the London Mayor. Mostly the Transport Department provides £ 1 billion, which means that its interest in the PPP remains huge (House of Commons, 2005).

The PPPs provides an ideal security in terms of funds for maintaining and retaining the tube. Although the London Underground PPP is complex with several management interfaces, it achieves its goal of providing the necessary funds for the long-term future of the sector. In principle, the British government overruled funding of the Tube via TfL issuance of public bonds. Notably, this would have provided a simpler structure of the running of the entity but it did not offer adequate security of funds (House of Commons, 2005). 

To secure the deal, the government had to deal with disagreements with TfL. As a result, the government assured lenders of the initial creditors of £3.8 billion to get back ninety-five percent of their investment in the event that the PPP was terminated. Innately, repaying this loan cost about £450 million in excess of repaying a government loan for the same amount. Notably, the financiers realized that the borrowing structure had increased risks than the government debt hence the high interests. If the Infracos meet their targets, they earn between eighteen and twenty percent returns and the shareholders would provide £275 million (House of Commons, 2005).

3.1 The Role of Managers in Running Public Service Partnerships

Managers have a vital role to play to ensure that public service partnerships meet their objectives of delivering services at cheaper costs. At the same time, the management has to lead different groups of employees working for private entities involved in the partnerships. For example, three different companies have to oversee the maintenance and renewal of the London Underground. Therefore, the management of TfL must ensure that all the three organizations perform their duties diligently to reduce the chances of stalling the transport system. Nevertheless, human resource management different from one firm to another and, as a result, the various employees expect varying treatments from their firms. At the same time, these employees work towards the same goals, which pose serious challenges to the management (Demirag et al, 2012).

In principle, “PPPs combine the best of both worlds: the private sector with its resources, management skills and technology; and the public sector with its regulatory actions and protection of the public interest” (United Nations & United Nations, 2008, p. 2). Managers for these ventures must understand that they are not dealing with public funds but the private sector resources. The private sector requires maximum returns on investments. Nevertheless, it is impossible to achieve the highest ROIs without having a competent management team. The team should understand the benefits of having the best employees in the department. Although the government audits public funds, the private sector requires maximum accountability and responsibility for the management. The managers must know that the funds entrusted to them are to make profits. Subsequently, they must design ways of reaping the maximum benefits from the investment (Demirag et al, 2012).

The private sector has enormous amounts of resources to invest in any business venture to earn more profits. However, it expects profits within a given time. In effect, the managers of the PPPs must devise ways of increasing employee motivation to work towards the firm’s goals and meet the set deadlines. Although managing the team of workers has challenges, the management should be out in place line managers who oversee the daily chores of the employees. The line managers should be answerable to another boss who understands the intrigues of running a PPP. Nevertheless, all employees should be treated with dignity to ensure increased performance for the organization. In fact, these employees are not civil servants who answer to the government as their employer. Furthermore, the public does not gauge their performance as it happens with the public sector that is not run via a PPP.

4.0 The Reasons for the Success of Public Financing Initiatives (PFI)

PFI is a form of PPP, that draws money from the private sector to fund the maintenance and running of the public service sector. In essence, PFI is a subset of the PPP but the results are always the same. The government contracts the private sector because of the private sector’s access to capital and human resource to perform duties, which were traditionally done by the government. Notably, PFIs are successful in the world because of their access to large amounts of cash, which ensure the completeness and the sustainability of the given project. In addition, the consortium runs the entity as a private company that is wary of the competition. Moreover, the consortium must meet its part in the contract to reduce conflicts with the government. Managers take responsibility and accountability of the firm to ensure maximum returns. On the same note, before a private company enters into a contract with the government, the firm studies the terms and conditions to ascertain whether they are realistic. Afterward, the company conducts a survey to learn how to manage the sector within the given time to achieve the best results. On the ground, the PFI recruits the best employees in the job market to help it make it targets within the specified timeframe (Barlow Roehrich & Wright, 2010).

The terms of the contracts put pressure on PFI to meet the targets. In most cases, the contracts are “no service no fee” performance basis (Yescombe, 2007). Subsequently, the contracts run for about thirty years where the PFI must utilize the time to reap maximum benefits. Since the firm performs tasks that occur during the time of the contract, the managements understand the need to act according to the public expectations. Governments develop a specification that ensures that the consortium loses a payment element if it does not meet the targets. In effect, the management creates a team of employees that works to meet the laid down expectations. Notably, writing the contract determines whether the public demands are met at all times (Barlow, Roehrich & Wright, 2010).

In essence, PFI and PPPs are successful in most of the countries that have embraced them. One of the primary reasons why they succeed is the need for the private sector to make a profit. However, the gains cannot be realized without meeting the terms in the contracts. Although they failed initially in the UK as the opponents saw it as a means of privatizing the public sector, the government has learned from past mistakes to enter into contracts that safeguard the interests of the public. At the same time, the consortiums are more responsible in their dealings to ensure that they receive favorable ratings from the public to secure deals with the governments in the future. Although many people feel that the consortiums could take advantage of the payout in time of termination of the contract, the private sector looks at the long-term benefits that it stands to gain by remaining in the contract agreement.

In addition, the two parties must agree to the terms of the contract before putting it on paper. Therefore, the two ascertain that the conditions are viable and thus agree to work together for the agreed time. Accordingly, the private sector has adequate funds to run the services and maintain all the utilities in the area. Sustainability is essential to building the peoples’ belief in the public sector. On the contrary, the public might lack the necessary funds and human resources to run the public sector efficiently. Nonetheless, the private has the two in abundance thus providing the service in an efficient manner.

5.0 How the Government Can Benefit From Private Capital

The private sector has adequate capital to run government services efficiently for a profit. However, the government should develop contracts that best suits the interests of the public. The general measures the service delivery, which fails when the government does not establish a viable contract. However, the arrangements should take into consideration the interests of the investors to increase their willingness to enter into more deals to promote service delivery. At the same time, the social capital lies in bank accounts for the lack of investments and, as a result, the government has to provide incentives to appeal the society into running government agencies. Since the contracts are performance based, the incentives should be worthwhile for the investment in the long term (Demirag et al, 2012).

In addition, the private sector runs the entities smoothly and increase service delivery unlike government-led institutions, which could lack in creativity. Notably, the government cannot run nationwide services smoothly with all the employees reporting to one office. However, the private sector invests funds in a venture and creates a breakdown of authority to increase employee performance and thus meet the needs of the clients in a better manner. On the other without profitable returns for the private sector, such deals are hard to come by because private firms are for-profit organizations. Their primary goal is to increase revenue and profitability for the organizations hence the need to take only the most profitable ventures. Further, public loans to the government are expensive and risky to take because the people could fail to purchase municipal bonds. However, the private provides a guaranteed source of funds and human resource to run the entities (Lossa & Martimort, 2012).

6.0 Conclusion

London Underground remains a leader in service delivery in the United Kingdom since its inception in 1863. Although it has undergone numerous changes, the organization continues to improve its service delivery in London and beyond. The British government saw the need to enter into partnership with three consortiums to smoothen the provision of services in the transport sector. The deal ensures that residents of London have access to better services at a reduced cost. The government pays the consortiums after delivering the agreed services, which means that the PPPs must accomplish their part as per the contract. Since the government controls the London Underground, it is in a position to ensure that travelers’ needs are met at all times. At the same time, the management of the tunnels must be according to the recommended standards. On the other hand, the consortiums have a committed workforce that works towards satisfying the terms of the contract and realize better returns for the organizations. Despite the many challenges that TfL and the government have gone through, they always come to an agreement on how best to run the transport system in London. In brief, for the next thirty years, the British Government expects to achieve much success in the running of the London Underground and keep at the highest level of public service delivery.




Barlow, J., Roehrich, J. K., & Wright, S. (2010). "De facto privatisation or a renewed role for the EU? Paying for Europe’s healthcare infrastructure in a recession.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 103: 51–55.

Demirag, I., Khadaroo, I., Stapleton, P. & Stevenson, C. (2012) "The diffusion of risks in public-private partnership contracts." Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 25(8): 1317 – 1339.

Durose, C., Mangan, C., Needham, C. & Rees, J. (2013). "University of Birmingham." Transforming local public services through co-production. Retrieved 07 March 2015 from

House of Commons. (2005). “Committee of Public Accounts.” London Underground Public Private Partnerships. Retrieved 07 March 2015 from

Khadaroo, I. (2014). "The valuation of risk transfer in UK school public-private partnership contracts." The British Accounting Review, 46(2): 154–165.

Lossa, E. & Martimort, D. (2012). "Risk allocation and the costs and benefits of public--private partnerships." The RAND Journal of Economics, 43(3): 442–474.

Pestoff, V., Brandsen, T. & Verschuere, B. (2013). New Public Governance, the Third Sector and Co-Production. New York: Routledge Press.

Pollock, A. M; Jean S. & Neil V. (2002). "Private finance and "value for money" in NHS hospitals: a policy in search of a rationale?” British Medical Journal, 342: 1205–1209.

United Nations & United Nations. (2008). Guidebook on Promoting good governance in public-private partnerships. New York: United Nations.

Yescombe, E. R. (2007). Public-private partnerships: Principles of policy and finance. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:30

Love Poems




Love Poems



Even though many people would expect that all poems on love have focus on the theme of passionate love, ideal love, in most other cases, love poems present love in a shocking and cynical manner. Good examples of love poems describing love as ideal are “Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone” by W. H. Auden and “How Do I Love Thee” by Elizabeth Barrett Browning. On the other hand, an example of a love poem that presents love in a cynical manner is “One Perfect Rose” by Dorothy Parker. When showing love as ideal, it is shown as a sweet thing that everyone should enjoy. This is unlike when it is shown as sarcastic as one does not appreciate the things she receives out of love.

In the poem, “Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone” by W. H. Auden, love is shown to be a very important thing that a person should not lose. In this case, the narrator is a woman who has lost either her husband or the man she loves. She is so much saddened by the loss that she does not want anything to come her way. She does not want other people to enjoy their lives when she is mourning. She needs all other people to put aside their activities and join her in the type of grief. She wants everyone to realize that she has lost the love of her life. This should be done by having “aeroplanes circle moaning overhead” (St2, ln1) with the words on the sky that he is dead. She wants everyone to wear mourning clothes including policemen in black gloves and crepe bows on doves.

For the narrator in this poem, she has lost the man who was all sides to her. He was her Sunday, working week, noon, midnight, talk, and song. Now that he is gone, she prefers that everything comes to a standstill. She does not see the need of the moon, the sun, the ocean, the wood, and the stars. Everything has not meaning anymore and has to perish. This is an indication all the things on earth had meaning to her because her love was alive. Now that he is gone, he has gone with them all. Auden uses alliteration such as telephone and bone, overhead and dead, doves and gloves, west and rest,song and wrong, one and sun, and wood and good, in her poem to stress on the importance of the love that existed between the two parties. Using allegory, the poet shows what ideal love is. When the narrator says that “He was my North, my South, my East, and West” (St3 ln1), it means that she loved him so much and he meant the world to her. Being her every side of the world means that he is everything she wishes to have in life.

Similarly, in the poem, “How Do I Love Thee” by Elizabeth Barrett Browning, love is shown as the best thing a person should wish to have on earth. The poet uses allegory by relating love to so many sweet things. When the narrator says, “I love thee to the level of every day’s, Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light” (ln5-6) it means that he loves the person he is describing deeply.He starts the narration by implying that he loves her in a number of ways. This is shown through alliteration when he matches words using the same consonants. The words height and sight in the second and third lines respectively show the depth of his love. Since he loves her to deep heights, his soul is able to reach her when out of sight. This means that he has her images in her mind and soul and thus feels her presence even when he is not.

            Browning shows the reality of love by using allusion. An example is when the narrator says, “I love thee with a love I seemed to lose with my lost saints” (ln11-12). Relating the extent of his love with lost saints shows love as pure and pleasurable. He does not see anything better in the world that his love. This is the reason he says that given another chance, he will still love his current love. He loves her with his smiles, tears, and all his life an indication that losing her will be equated to losing his life. It is notable that children have very strong faith in what they are told to believe in. they can be argued to have the strongest faith of all people on earth. When the narrator here says that he loves his love with his childhood faith, it means that he loves her dearly. It can be argued that he loves her with all his love and thus has no love left to love anyone else.  

On the other hand, love poems can present cynical love. This is sarcastic love in which a person is not satisfied with he receives and wishes he had something different. “One Perfect Rose” by Dorothy Parker is an example of such type of a love poem. In this poem, the narrator sarcastically acknowledges the love she receives. She refers to the gift she receives as “one perfect rose” (St1 ln4). However, perfect in this case does not have the same meaning as the one people are aware of. Perfect should mean something that does not have any defect and thus something that pleases whoever has it. However, perfect in this case is used sarcastically; it is use of anecdote to symbolize something funny. It means something that should be mocked. According to her, she would rather she received something of value than only a perfect rose. This is shown by the way she starts the narration, “A single flow’r he sent me, since we met” (St1 ln1). Even though she thinks that he chose the words accompanying the flower wisely, they did not match. It is also funny that he has only sent her a single rose flower. 

In order to prove that the narrator wishes to have something better, she asks, “Why is it no one ever sent me yet, One perfect limousine” (St3 ln1-2). Limousine evidences use of allegory as the narrator does not refer to a limousine. She does not mean that she only prefers a limousine. However, a limousine in this case is used to mean something of value; better than a single rose. Limousine might even mean a bunch of roses rather than one rose. It shows that the narrator should be shown love by something that will please her and something that will match with the send message.

In these three poems, it is evident that love poems do not only describe love as something that everyone should wish to have. There are instances in which it will be bitter or sarcastic.




Auden, W. H. (n.d.). Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone.Retrieved from

Browning, E. B. (1850). How Do I Love Thee? (Sonnet 43).Retrieved from

Parker, D. (1973).One Perfect Rose.The Portable Dorothy Parker.Ed. Brendan Gill. NY: The Viking Press.


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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:30

A Famous Leader Martin Luther King Jr





A Famous Leader Martin Luther King Jr


From the famous leaders in history, Martin Luther King Jr. can be described as a teacher. He is a leader who is known for his leadership qualities and traits. From his leadership styles, leaders of today can learn so much from him. The major lessons are that a leader should have full commitment to his cause, should disrupt the status quo in order to necessitate change, should have a dream/ vision and communicate it as well as do it, should not underestimate low level employees, should know the why, and involve everyone. From these lessons to current leaders, Luther can be argued to be a teacher. An effective leader is the one who influences his followers to do what they are told, agree to do it, and want to do it(Betof, 2009). Wanting to do what the followers are told is the most challenging aspect of leadership that requires a leader to be a teacher.

As a teacher, Luther knew that he had to make his followers understand the overall vision of the movement. He emphasized on a greater vision that was clear to all his followers. He was a master of crafting vision in his followers. His ideas were initially considered a dream that could never be true and as a result he was ridiculed and discouraged. However, as a teacher Luther knew that he had to help all his followers learn new habits, values, and attitudes. This was achieved by disrupting the norm and the status quo. Many people were used to the way things were and thus could only agree to change after learning new values and attitudes. He also had to help people see the challenges they were facing and learn new ways of changing things. They had to learn to see the opportunity.

Considering the different styles of a teacher-leader, Luther can be described as a shaman. This is a leader who uses personal power to influence others. When combined with unusual gifts like is the case for Luther, a shaman becomes charismatic (Betof, 2009). He is shown as a leader who had the commitment, power, and energy to organize the people around him.  


Betof, E. (2009). Leaders as teachers: Unlock the teaching potential of your company’s best and brightest. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.

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Should the Federal Government Fund all Citizens First Two Years at a College


            Almost a decade ago, public high school in the United States became free. Consequently, more students joined secondary schools and enhanced their careers, which improved their lives and those of the others in the society. However, technological advances require more skilled workforce for the new industries emerging in the country. At the same time, more employers are seeking for college graduates to improve their organizational performance. On the same note, college tuition fees are rising while government subsidies are dwindling. Innately, this implies that more students cannot afford a college education thus locking them out of jobs as high school dropouts (Office of the Press Secretary, 2015). In essence, college education for the first two years should be free to increase the number of skilled workers in the US who would help in improving the economy.

Federal Government Should Fund Citizens First Two Years in College

            In principle, the funding of the first two years of college education would increase college enrollment in the country. In reality, very many people are dropping out of high school because they cannot afford a college education. Nevertheless, allowing them to learn for the first two years would give then skills to look for part-time jobs, which they would use to subsidize their education during the last years of college. Subsequently, after graduation the students would access well-paying jobs that would sustain their lives and that of their families. Additionally, many students shy away from the college education because of debts accumulated through student loans. The program would reduce the amount of debts by half and encourage more students to take up the opportunities to acquire college degrees. On the same note, students could work during the first two years and save money to fund their last years in universities thus cutting the amount of debt. Notably, with the funding the students would be comfortable and increase their chances of acquiring better skills necessary for their careers. Fundamentally, the program is to offer free education to only responsible students who attain better grades. Therefore, uncommitted students would not be part of the program; hence, taxpayers’ money would not go to waste. All stakeholders need to play their part to achieve this dream of more college graduates in the US (Office of the Press Secretary, 2015).

            On the other hand, if all the fifty states adopt the proposal they would save each student about $3,800 per year. In addition, the program would serve about nine million students every year. Notably, this translates to a considerable amount of money and, as a result, taxpayers have to foot the bill through increased taxation. Ideally, many people believe that the funding would be benefitting other people who are not family members. In essence, the working class did not enjoy these services during their education, and, as a result, they are subjected to unwarranted taxes. Every student should pay for their studies and save the taxpayers from bearing their unnecessary burdens (Calvert, 2015).


The United States needs college graduates more than ever to match the needs of the job market. Nevertheless, this cannot be achieved without providing affordable education to students. The government should pay for the first two years of college tuition to increase the number of graduates in the country. In essence, this would improve the economy and much the job market needs. An improved economy would result in more employment for graduating students and an improvement in the lives of the Americans. Importantly, the students would be taxpayers of the future after graduation. Therefore, free college education for the first two college years is ideal for American students.


Calvert, K. (2015). "PBS NEWSHOUR." Obama: Community college should be ‘as free and universal in America as high school.’ Retrieved 05 March 2015 from

Office of the Press Secretary. (2015). “The White House.” FACT SHEET - White House Unveils America’s College Promise Proposal: Tuition-Free Community College for Responsible Students. Retrieved 05 March 2015 from

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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:29

Reflection paper




Reflection paper


Who was Moses? What did he do? Why the primary foundational story?

Moses is a very important person in Jewish history since he was privileged to receive the Jewish Law, the Torah on Mt. Sinai. He is the only man in the Jewish tradition to have seen God as explained in Exodus 33-34. Despite his miraculous survival when young, he evidences great leadership while still young. He is raised by the Pharaoh’s daughter but once he realizes that he is a Jew, he protects them as much as he can. The first time he sees his people, he is worried by the troubles they experience. When he evidences an Egyptian slave master beating one of his slaves who is a Jew, he kills showing that he is fighting for justice. When fleeing from Egypt, he reaches Midian where he finds young men bullying men and stands to protect them showing that he does not tolerate unfairness. Even though Moses is shown to be brave in these incidents, he does not show the same brevity when God appears to him in the form a burning bush (Aaron, 2013). He only reluctantly accepts the role of leading the Israelites from Egypt. Nevertheless, after accepting the role to free the Israelites, he uses diplomacy, threats, magic, and lastly divine intervention to convince Pharaoh to let the slaves free.

After convincing Pharaoh to let the slaves free, Moses has a hard time convincing the slaves that they should not remain slaves forever and thus embrace freedom. On their way from slavery, Moses is faced with great resistance at the Red Sea when the Israelites doubt their decision of leaving Egypt.  In such cases, Moses asks for divine assistance and because of his faith, he receives the help required. When he lifts his rod for the water to divide and the Israelites cross the sea safely, he signifies his strong faith that inspires other people. He receives the Torah on behalf of the Israelites since God considers this the best way after He tries to talk to all the people in vain. At the end of the 40 days and 40 nights he spends on Mt. Sinai receiving the Torah, Moses manages to see God pass in front of him (Ford, 2011). 

Moses’ foundational story surrounds his saving of the Israelites and the giving them of the rules that will govern their ethical living. Since God loves the Israelites so much and thus decides to free them, He wants them to show gratitude by obeying His laws (Miller, 2009). Moses acts as the bridge between the Israelites and God. It is not possible for God to talk to all the Israelites at the same time but He can use Moses to talk to them. He knows that Moses has faith in Him and even though he doubts his capability to lead the Israelites to the Promised Land, He obeys the rules given by God.

It is notable that Moses has faults like all other human beings. A good example is moment he finds the Israelites worshipping other gods after he goes for the Torah. He lets anger overtake him and instead of speaking to the rock in which the laws are written as commanded by God, he strikes on it (Lim, 1997). Nevertheless, he has a unique experience that no other Jew in the Jewish history has experienced. He sees God severally, through signs and in real life. God passes before him when he is receiving the Torah, something no one in Jewish history has. All other people see God through miracles.




Aaron, C. L. (2013). The Bible’s foundation: An introduction to the Pentateuch. London: Chalice Press.

Ford, D. F. (2011).The future of Christian theology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Lim, J. T. (1997). The sin of Moses and the staff of God: A narrative approach.Assen: Van Gorcum.

Miller, W. T. (2009). The book of Exodus: Question by question. New York: Paulist Press.

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Tuesday, 28 December 2021 13:29

Teaching Styles


Teaching Styles


According to Rodriguez and Bellanca (2007), the teacher behaviors that Kermin and his associates found to have the greatest impact on low-performing children in the classroom are equitable distribution, affirm/ correct, proximity, individual help, praise, wait time, courtesy, reasons for praise, personal regard, delving, listening, touching, higher-level questions, accepting feelings, and desisting. Considering these 15 behaviors and my teaching style, I think the three behaviors that I would mostly use are proximity, individual help, and praise. Since the students are not performing as expected, as the teacher, I should ensure that I consider each student as an individual. Teaching them as a group makes it hard to identify the special needs of each student. Treating each student as an individual is ensured through proximity and individual help. Being close to each student creates a positive relationship with the students and this makes it possible for them to share their problems with me. They will see as a friend and this way, I will be able to offer individual help. Praise is also important whenever a student achieves something positive.

On the other hand, I do not consider frequent use of desisting, higher-level questions, and touching. Even though touching shows that I am concerned with the student, I do not consider it very important because it can interfere with the student’s concentration. Similarly, asking higher-level questions might not help because the student will feel challenged by having questions he cannot handle. In the same manner, desisting does not help because it will only postpone a problem that would otherwise be solved if another teaching method was used. Nevertheless, all the 15 behaviors are important and employing all of them will ensure that all the students’ needs are incorporated in the teaching style (Fayer, 2010). The used teaching style with all the behaviors will ensure that needs of the students are identified and solved.      




Fayer, L. (2010).Bringing problem based-learning into the science classroom. Marion, IL: Pieces of Learning.        

Rodriguez, E. R., &Bellanca, J. A. (2007).What is it about me you can’t teach?An instructional guide for the urban educator.Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press.


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